S=
Size
T=
Type

More on this + examples later
Curved Mirrors

Mirrors do not always have to be plane, they can be convex( outwards vertex) , or
concave (inwards vertex)

Curved mirrors have a
center of curvature,
analogous to the center of a circle
Principal axis  runs through the center of curvature of the mirror
●
Meets mirror at vertex
●
All rays that enter the mirror parallel to the principal axis will converge at the focus
video reference:
( speed up to 1.5x)
Drawing Ray Diagrams
When drawing ray diagrams with a converging/ concave mirrors, we focus on four rays :
1.
A ray goes in parallel to the principal axis, reflects through the focus
2.
A ray through F will reflect back parallel to the principal axis
3.
A ray through the centre of curvature, reflects back on itself
4.
A ray at the vertex follows the law of reflection
When drawing ray diagrams with diverging/ convex mirrors, we focus on three rays:
1.
A ray parallel to the principal axis, reflects out as if it came from the focus
2.
A ray towards F will reflect back parallel to the principal axis
3.
A ray through the center of curvature, will reflect back on itself.
●
Where the rays converge is where the image forms
●
Real image can be focused onto a screen where all light rays meet
●
Virtual image don’t meet, but appear to originate from somewhere
QUIZ QUESTIONS:

Types of light

Forms of radiation

Laws of reflection

Ray diagrams for convex and concave
Significant Figures
used for numbers that are really big or really small
ex : 6.67 x 10^6
We use scientific notation for numbers smaller than 0.01 or greater than 1000
●
Sometimes we need to use scientific notation to rep the correct number of significant
figures
●
Must be greater than 1, smaller than 9
●
42.5 x 10^9  incorrect
●
4.25 x 10^10 correct
●
Original number 
bigger than 10 positive exponent
●
Original number
 smaller than 10 negative exponent
When converting scientific notation to standard notation, move the decimal the same number as
the exponent
●
Positive exponent move to right
●
Negative exponent  move to left
Scientific Prefixes

Scientists will often use prefixes to change the size of a basic unit

Base many lengths on metres, centimetres, or kilometres
We can replace scientific notation with a scientific prefix on the unit if the exponent is the same
Ex; 1500 meters  1.5 x 10^3 m  1.5 km
0.0053 g 53.00 x 10^3  53.7 mg
Scientific Figures & Measurements
Units of Measurements
●
Each measurements are taken
●
When we record quantitative data, we record all certain numbers, and estimate one
more
●
The number of certain digits are sig figs
Significant Figures
●
Sig figs are the digits recorded for any scientific measurement
●
They include all digits you are certain about plus the one uncertain digit
Rules For Significant Figures
1.
All nonzeros are significant
1573  (4)
12.456  (5)
2.
Zeros between nonzeros are significant
102 3
10054
3. Zeros to the left of the value are significant
1.02
0.00105
4. Zeros to the right may be significant
●
Zeros to the right in d significant
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 18 pages?
 Spring '18
 Carter
 Physics, pH, Current, Light, Radiation, Geometrical optics