Domestic pigs horses ducks chickens are common

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• Domestic Pigs, Horses, Ducks, Chickens are common Reservoirs A given Influenza Viruses tends to only infect a particular Type of Animal. There are Swine, Equine, Avian and Human Influenza Viruses and each tends to infect Pigs, Horses, Birds or Humans. Pigs in particular can serve as Host for Influenza Viruses from different Species (such as Avian and Human), and thus serve as important “Mixing Vessels” for Antigenic Shift. Mode of Transmission • Inhalation of Respiratory Droplets containing Virus Particles • Hand Contact with contaminated Materials, followed by involuntary Hand-to-Eye Contact
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Influenza Page 3 Progression of Influenza • Influenza infects primarily Respiratory Epithelial Cells - Results in the Loss of Ciliated Epithelia • Localized Symptoms are produced when Immune System Cells eliminate these Infected Respiratory Epithelial Cells • Constitutional Symptoms are produced by frantic Cytokine Signaling by Infected Cells and Immune System Cells Symptoms INFLUENZA COMMON COLD Fever ( Sudden Onset) - Malaise ( Severe) (Slight) Headache - Vomiting - Diarrhea - Influenza-Induced Diarrhea is common in Children, rare in Adults. Diagnosis • Difficult to confirm - If an Influenza Epidemic is in progress, it ʼ s probably Influenza - If the Constitutional Symptoms (“Malaise”) overwhelm the Localized Symptoms, it ʼ s probably Influenza • Cold: “My Nose is runny and my Throat is scratchy.” • Influenza: “Aaack!” • Influenza can be diagnosed via Serology Treatment • For the average Healthy Individual: - Rest (Complete Recovery takes about 2 Weeks) • For High-Risk Groups (People with Heart/Respiratory Problems) - Amantadines (“M 2 Inhibitors”) help alleviate the Symptoms - Amantadine, Rimantadine - Neuriminidase Inhibitors (NAIs) - Oseltamivir (Tamiflu™), Zanamivir (Relenza™)
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Influenza Page 4 Prevention • Influenza Vaccines (70-90% Effective) - Split Virus Vaccines (Trivalent Inactivated Vaccine/TIV) Consist of purified Hemagglutininin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Fluzone™ is a concentrated (4X) Vaccine that confers greater Protection for People 65 Years and older. - Intradermal Vaccine (Fluzone Intradermal ) Fluzone Intradermal™ is injected into the Skin using a much smaller Needle. It activates Dendritic Cells. - Attenuated Virus Vaccine (FluMist™) FluMist™ is administered by being sprayed up the Nose. It consists of Attenuated, Temperature-Sensitive Virus Strains that can only replicate in the Nose, where the Temperature is below 37°C. Antigenic Drift (Type A and Type B) • Minor Changes in HA and NA Genes causing minor Influenza Epidemics that occur approximately every 2 Years. - Caused by spontaneous Point Mutations • RNA Polymerases cannot Proofread so there is no way for these Mutations to be corrected • The Immune System is a bit slow to catch onto these Changes, so you ʼ ll catch a very mild Flu Antigenic Shift (Type A only) • Major Changes in HA and NA causing Influenza Pandemics that occur approximately every 10 to 15 Years - Caused by the Genetic Re-assortment between Virus Particles from different Species Hosts • Pigs, Horses, Ducks, and Chickens are common “Mixing Vessels.”
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