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Be sorted on the result of applying the upper

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be sorted on the result of applying the upper() function on r . A and s . A . The hash or merge join algorithms can then be used unchanged. 13.8 Give conditions under which the following expressions are equivalent A , B G agg ( C ) ( E 1 a E 2 ) and ( A G agg ( C ) ( E 1 )) a E 2 where agg denotes any aggregation operation. How can the above condi- tions be relaxed if agg is one of min or max ? Answer: The above expressions are equivalent provided E 2 contains only attributes A and B , with A as the primary key (so there are no duplicates). It is OK if E 2 does not contain some A values that exist in the result of E 1 , since such values will get Fltered out in either expression. However, if there are duplicate values in E 2 . A , the aggregate results in the two cases would be different. If the aggregate function is min or max, duplicate A values do not have any effect. However, there should be no duplicates on ( A , B ); the Frst expression removes such duplicates, while the second does not. 13.9 Consider the issue of interesting orders in optimization. Suppose you are given a query that computes the natural join of a set of relations S . Given a subset S 1 of S , what are the interesting orders of S 1? Answer: The interesting orders are all orders on subsets of attributes that can potentially participate in join conditions in further joins. Thus, let T be the set of all attributes of S 1 that also occur in any relation in S S 1. Then every ordering of every subset of T is an interesting order. 13.10 Show that, with n relations, there are (2( n 1))! / ( n 1)! different join orders. Hint: A complete binary tree is one where every internal node has exactly two children. Use the fact that the number of different complete
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Exercises 7 binary trees with n leaf nodes is: 1 n p 2( n 1) ( n 1) P If you wish, you can derive the formula for the number of complete binary trees with n nodes from the formula for the number of binary trees with n nodes. The number of binary trees with n nodes is: 1 n + 1 p 2 n n P This number is known as the Catalan number , and its derivation can be found in any standard textbook on data structures or algorithms. Answer: Each join order is a complete binary tree (every non-leaf node has exactly two children) with the relations as the leaves. The number of different complete binary trees with n leaf nodes is 1 n ( 2( n 1) ( n 1) ) . This is because there is a bijection between the number of complete binary trees with n leaves and number of binary trees with n 1 nodes. Any complete binary tree with n leaves has n 1 internal nodes. Removing all the leaf nodes, we get a binary tree with n 1 nodes. Conversely, given any binary tree with n 1 nodes, it can be converted to a complete binary tree by adding n leaves in a unique way. The number of binary trees with n 1 nodes is given by 1 n ( 2( n 1) ( n 1) ) , known as the Catalan number. Multiplying this by n ! for the number of permutations of the n leaves, we get the desired result. 13.11
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