Ad hoc techniques and analytical techniques The spectrum of prioritization

Ad hoc techniques and analytical techniques the

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Ad hoc techniques and analytical techniques The spectrum of prioritization techniques spans from simple, single- criterion classification to elaborate analytic prioritization approaches, such as AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process) [Saaty 1980] , Cost-Value- Analysis [Karlsson and Ryan 1997] , or QFD (Quality Function Deploy- ment) [Akao 1990] . In many projects, simple ad hoc prioritization techniques such as ranking or requirements classification are well suited. Especially with regard to the resources available, using ad hoc techniques is often advisa- ble. If the decision process is considered too incomprehensible, or if the results are too erroneous, analytical approaches for prioritization should be used (additionally). In practice, multiple prioritization techniques are used in combination in order to prioritize the requirements [Lehtola and Kauppinen 2006] . Ranking and Top-Ten Technique Two well-established techniques for requirement prioritization are, for example, the following [Lauesen 2002] : Ranking: In this technique , a number of selected stakeholders arrange the requirements to be prioritized with respect to a specific criterion. Top-Ten Technique: In this technique, the n most important require- ments for a defined criterion are selected. For these requirements, a
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120 8 Requirements Management ranking order is determined afterward. This ranking order represents the importance of the selected requirements with regard to the defined criterion. Single-Criterion Classification Another prioritization technique that is often used in practice is based on the classification of requirements with respect to the importance of the realization of the requirements for the system’s success. This type of prior- itization is based on assigning each requirement to one of the following priority classes [IEEE Std. 830-1998] : Mandatory: A mandatory requirement is a requirement that must be implemented at all costs or else the success of the system is threatened. Optional: An optional requirement is a requirement that does not nec- essarily need to be implemented. Neglecting a few requirements of this class does not threaten the success of the system. Nice-to-have: Nice-to-have requirements are requirements that do not influence the system’s success if they are not implemented. In practice, differentiating between “optional” and “nice-to-have” require- ments can be very difficult. Therefore, requirements classification demands classification criteria that are as objectively verifiable as possible. Kano Classification The Kano approach introduced in section 3.2 also supports the prioritiza- tion of requirements. By making use of the Kano approach, one can classify and prioritize requirements with respect to their acceptance on the market. In order to do so, the following three property classes (see also figure 3-1 ) are classified: The three properties in the Kano approach Dissatisfiers: A requirement specifies a dissatisfier that the system must possess in order to be successfully introduced to the market.
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