Sideroblastic anemia is an example of microcytic hypochromic anemia.Pernicious anemia is an example of a macrocytic anemia.Iron deficiency anemia is an example of microcytic hypochromic anemia.REF:p. 5015.After initial compensation, what hemodynamic change should the nurse monitor for in a patient who has a reduction in the number of circulating erythrocytes?a.Increased viscosity of bloodb.Decreased cardiac outputc.Altered coagulationd.Hyperdynamic circulatory stateANS:DAfter initial compensation, the blood flows faster and more turbulently than normal blood, causing a hyperdynamic circulatory state.Blood viscosity decreases rather than increases.
Cardiac output increases.Alteration in coagulation does not occur.REF:p. 5016.A 25-year-old female has a heavy menses during which she loses a profuse amount of blood. Which of the following adaptations should the nurse expect?When the anemia is severe or acute in onset (e.g., hemorrhage), the initial compensatory mechanism is peripheral blood vessel constriction, diverting blood flow to essential vital organs.Fluid moves into the vascular space, not the cell.Blood volume increases; thus, cardiac output increases.There is an increase in hemoglobin release of oxygen.REF:p. 5017.A 60-year-old female emphysema patient experiences a rapid and pounding heart, dizziness, and fatigue with exertion. Which of the following respiratory assessment findings indicate the respiratory system is compensating for the increased oxygen demand?
The rate and depth of breathing increase in an effort to increase oxygen availability accompaniedby an increase in the release of oxygen from hemoglobin.Bronchodilation occurs, not constriction.Dyspnea is not a compensatory mechanism but a side effect of the body’s attempt to increase oxygen.The respiratory system does not activate the renin-angiotensin response; the kidneys are involved.REF:p. 5018.A 2-year-old malnourished child has vitamin B12and folate deficiencies. A blood smear suggests the deficiency is macrocytic and normochromic. The nurse would expect the hemoglobin to be:The macrocytic (megaloblastic) anemias are characterized by unusually large stem cells (megaloblasts) in the marrow that mature into erythrocytes that are unusually large in size (macrocytic), thickness, and volume. The hemoglobin content is normal, thus allowing them to be classified as normochromic.The hemoglobin content is normal, not sporadic.
- Fall '17
- keisha lovence