2. Reinforcers are not made equal (a better alternative reinforcement). 3. Schedules of reinforcement produce different rates of extinction
Observational Learning Learning by watching other people’s behavior; no direct rewards or punishments involved Four Parts or Stages 1. Attention 2. Retention 3. Initiation 4. Motivation
Bobo Doll Experiment
Appendix A: Classical Conditioning Practice Questions
Identify the CS, US, CR, and UR for each of the following scenarios: 1. Every time someone flushes a toilet in your house, the shower becomes very hot/cold and causes you to jump back. Over time, you jump back after hearing the flush, even before the water temperature changes. 2. You eat a new food and then get sick because of the flu. However, you develop a dislike for the food and feel nauseated whenever you smell it. 3. Patients with cancer who are taking chemotherapy often feel nauseated or vomit from the drugs. After several trips to the hospital to receive their chemo, they may start to feel nauseated or vomit while in the lab room, or at the site of the doctor. 4. Present people with asthma or allergies with a jar with plastic flowers in it for them to smell. This can trigger an asthma attack/allergic reaction (i.e. sneezing).
5 . You visit the eye doctor and they have you put chin on a chin rest. They perform the eye puff test and you blink a lot. After experiencing this a few times, you start blinking a lot as soon as you put your chin on the chin rest. 6. In commercials directed towards men, they often present the product along with attractive females. After seeing this commercial a few times, the male viewer feels aroused just by seeing the product. 7. During a storm, lightning often appears before you hear thunder. When you were little, you would jump or feel afraid of the thunder. After experiencing a few storms, you started to jump/ feel afraid at the sight of lightning, before the thunder even occurred. Identify the CS, US, CR, and UR for each of the following scenarios:
Appendix B: Alternative Blocking Example
Blocking Example You go to Grandma’s one Sunday and she makes herbal tea , which you rarely drink. After leaving, you happen to come down with the flu and get sick to your stomach . What is likely to happen? The next Sunday, you are over the flu, and go to Grandma’s again. This time she serves chocolate chip cookies with the same herbal tea . You consume both to be polite. You feel sick to your stomach after eating and drinking. Do you associate the upset feeling with the tea? With the cookies? With both? Are you likely to avoid both tea and cookies in the future? Identify/Answer the Following : The 1 st CS paired with the US What is your UR/CR ? The 2 nd CS paired with 1 st CS and the US Do you respond to 1 st CS ? To 2 nd CS ?
Blocking Example US = flu UR = illness (nausea) CS = tea CR = taste aversion (nausea experienced -> tea) CS2 = cookies The association has already been formed between tea and illness, thus no association is formed with cookies and illness.
Cognition: Judgment and