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A new belief scientific progress influence of

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A new belief: scientific progress·Influence of Reformation:ocan medicine be questioned too?Paracelsus:·Theophrastus Philippus Aureoles Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1542)oAka Paracelsus·The founder of scientific medicineoBut also a mystic, alchemist and astrologer·The doctrine of signatures·Rejected Hippocrates, Galen and AvicennaoAgainst humoral theory·New theory of disease:
oLinked to minerals and metalsoImportance of certain organs·Dogmatic anti-dogmatismParacelsian politics:·Academic doctors VS. Paracelsans·Linked to Christianity, not the ancient Greeks and Romans·But by 1660s, both Galenic and Paracelsan ideas went into declineHarvey:·William Harvey (1578-1657)·Discovered circulation of the blood·Threat to Galenism:·If liver does not make blood, what else did Galen get wrongDescartes:·Rene Descartes (1596-1650)·Body as self regulating mechanismoBelieved a body is just like a clock that balances it self outoEach part contributed towards the wholeoBody works like a machine·Mind-body dualismThe microscope:·Hands and Zacharias JanssenoDuth spectacle-makers, created first microscope around 1600·Marcello MalpighioUsed microscope to make anatomical discoveries·Antoine Philips van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)oFather of microbiology17thCentury medical ideas and practice:·Galenism discarded but Hippocrates still popularoWhy? Empirical observation and bedside manner very important to medicalpractice·Women (especially midwives) still in charge in process of childbirth·More specific books published about women’s health·Invention of demographyoJohn Graunt (1620-1674): London haberdasher, used weekly burial listsoNewly discovered information: 40% of European children died before age 15
·Reappearances of the bubonic plague·New types of insinuations:oGeneral hospital system in France: the great confinement (poor, mentally ill,criminals, unmarried, chronically sick)Week 5: June 2nd, 2021Medicine and major historical periods:Age of the enlightenment (c. 1700-1789)Emphasis on use of reason and skepticism towards dogmasAge of revolutions (1789-1848)Political instability and warfare across Europe and the New worldRise of the modern nation-state (need for healthy citizens/soldiers)First Industrial revolution (c. 1750-1850)Associated with industrialization, urbanization and new technologiesHealth problems associated with industrial work, urban life and poverty18th century debates:Body as a mechanismHobees, descartes:human are machine lifeVital force: body moved by a soulGeorg Ernst Stahl (1659-1734)”animism”Mechanism vs vital force debate carries on throughout 1700 and into 1800sPreformationism vs epigenecistsPreformationists: sperm (or egg) contains a homunculusEpigenecists:fetus develops over pregnancyParis Medicine: OverviewParis became the home of the clinical practice in the early 19th centuryVast public hospital system20,000 bedsHospital as teaching centresUp to 5000 medical studentscharacteristics : scientific oversation, pathological anatomy, quantification“Read little, see much, do much”The idea of lesionsAnatomic pathological understanding of diseaseMedicine of the gaze

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