underground dissent continued to grow in the Soviet Union and its satellites 3

Underground dissent continued to grow in the soviet

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underground dissent continued to grow in the Soviet Union and its satellites 3. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union allowed “national communisms” to emerge in many Eastern countries as well as in several Soviet republics, in return for loyalty 4. By the early 1970s, the Soviet Union and China, once allies, had split a. In the 1960s, Romania gained auton- omy in its foreign policy by playing o ff its larger communist allies. b. African nations exploited Sino-Soviet tension to gain further aid from the Soviet Union D. Tensions in the Third World 1. Although the Third World never had a for- mal alliance, e ff orts to promote cooperation often foundered in the 1960s and 1970s a. Several countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, and Southwest Asia formed the Organization of Petro- leum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1960 to gain more from world trade in this commodity i. After the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, Arab members boycotted Israel’s First World allies a. The boycott dramatically raised the price of oil and led to an economic crisis in the West 2. Other commodity producers tried to duplicate OPEC’s success with products such as co ff ee and rubber a. OPEC’s triumph proved short-lived i. New oil discoveries outside OPEC’s orbit reduced pressures on consuming nations to purchase oil from OPEC at in fl ated prices i. During the 1960s, the Alliance for Progress provided money and advisers to improve local land sys- tems and teach the population the bene fi ts of liberal capitalism ii. Among others, the CIA worked with the Chilean military to over- throw Salvador Allende, a left- wing elected president, in 1973 f. By 1975, most rebel forces had been liq- uidated or isolated, but most of Latin America was run by military regimes VI. Tensions in the Three-World Order A. Third World radicalism exposed vulnerabili- ties in the three-world order, including the con- tinuation of the Vietnam War, dissidence in the Soviet bloc, and the rising fortunes of oil- producing nations and Japan B. Tensions in the First World 1. Women’s issues and civil rights a. The woman question became acute with more women joining the work- force and gaining the right to vote b. Students in Europe protested the deployment of nuclear weapons c. During the 1960s, American society lost some of its con fi dence i. Millions were disturbed by the assassination of President Ken- nedy in 1963, the violence against the civil rights movement in 1964, urban race riots that engulfed the country from 1965 to 1968, and widespread opposition to the Vietnam War especially on col- lege campuses ii. This unsettledness occurred at a time when President Lyndon Johnson led an e ff ort to expand the welfare state and addressed the weaknesses in American capitalism iii. Johnson’s programs and the civil rights movement unleashed other campaigns for social justice among Native Americans, Mexi- can Americans, homosexuals, and women, among others a. The development of an oral contraceptive helped unleash a sexual revolution and freed many women to pursue careers outside the home
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