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underground dissent continued to grow in the Soviet Union and its satellites3. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union allowed “national communisms” to emerge in many Eastern countries as well as in several Soviet republics, in return for loyalty4. By the early 1970s, the Soviet Union and China, once allies, had splita. In the 1960s, Romania gained auton-omy in its foreign policy by playing offits larger communist allies.b. African nations exploited Sino-Soviet tension to gain further aid from the Soviet UnionD. Tensions in the Third World1. Although the Third World never had a for-mal alliance, efforts to promote cooperation often foundered in the 1960s and 1970sa. Several countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, and Southwest Asia formed the Organization of Petro-leum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1960 to gain more from world trade in this commodityi. After the Arab-Israeli War of 1973, Arab members boycotted Israel’s First World alliesa.The boycott dramatically raised the price of oil and led to an economic crisis in the West2. Other commodity producers tried to duplicate OPEC’s success with products such as coffee and rubbera. OPEC’s triumph proved short-livedi. New oil discoveries outside OPEC’s orbit reduced pressures on consuming nations to purchase oil from OPEC at inflated pricesi. During the 1960s, the Alliance for Progress provided money and advisers to improve local land sys-tems and teach the population the benefits of liberal capitalismii. Among others, the CIA worked with the Chilean military to over-throw Salvador Allende, a left- wing elected president, in 1973f. By 1975, most rebel forces had been liq-uidated or isolated, but most of Latin America was run by military regimesVI. Tensions in the Three-World OrderA. Third World radicalism exposed vulnerabili-ties in the three-world order, including the con-tinuation of the Vietnam War, dissidence in the Soviet bloc, and the rising fortunes of oil- producing nations and JapanB. Tensions in the First World1. Women’s issues and civil rightsa. The woman question became acute with more women joining the work-force and gaining the right to voteb. Students in Europe protested the deployment of nuclear weaponsc. During the 1960s, American society lost some of its confidencei. Millions were disturbed by the assassination of President Ken-nedy in 1963, the violence against the civil rights movement in 1964, urban race riots that engulfed the country from 1965 to 1968, and widespread opposition to the Vietnam Warespecially on col-lege campusesii. This unsettledness occurred at a time when President Lyndon Johnson led an effort to expand the welfare state and addressed the weaknesses in American capitalismiii. Johnson’s programs and the civil rights movement unleashed other campaigns for social justice among Native Americans, Mexi-can Americans, homosexuals, and women, among othersa.The development of an oral contraceptive helped unleash a sexual revolution and freed many women to pursue careers outside the home