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DSST fundamentals of counseling

According to gilligan men think in terms of rules and

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moral and psychological tendencies than men. According to Gilligan, men think in terms of rules and justice and women are more inclined to think in terms of caring and relationships. She asks that Western society begin to value both equally. She outlines three stages of moral development progressing from selfish, to social or conventional morality, and finally to post conventional or principled morality. Women must learn to tend to their own interests and to the interests of others. She thinks that women hesitate to judge because they see the complexities of relationships. There has been criticism of Gilligan's work and much of it has come from Christina Hoff Sommers, PhD. She says that Gilligan has failed to produce the data for her research. She condemns the fact that Gilligan used anecdotal evidence, that researchers have not been able to duplicate her work, and that the samples used were too small. She thinks the field of gender studies needs to be put to the test of people from fields such as neuroscience or evolutionary psychology rather than from the area of education. She feels strongly that promoting an anti-male agenda hurts both males and females. Public policy and funding has been allocated based on Gilligan's data, which
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Sommers says is not publicly available. Sommers does not find it helpful for girls and women to be told that they are diminished or voiceless. The response to the criticisms has been just as adamant. Gilligan says that her findings have been published in leading journals and that Sommers points are not accurate. Gilligan received tenure as a full professor for the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 1986. Gilligan spent 1992-1994 teaching at the University of Cambridge in England. She was invited there as a Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions. Her area of academic expertise is in human development and psychology. She is a considered to be a pioneer of gender studies and particularly in the psychological and moral development of girls. In 1997, Gilligan was appointed to Harvard University's first position in gender studies, which is a newly endowed position at the Harvard Graduate School of Education known as the Patricia Albjerg Graham Chair in Gender Studies. She has been an integral part of the Harvard Project on Women's Psychology and Girls' Development that she initiated. This project unites the psychological study of women with the study of young girl's development. In addition, she works with a program called, Strengthening Healthy Resistance and Courage in Girls, which has now been enlarged to include boys in its prevention goals. It has been renamed the Harvard Project on Women's Psychology, Boy's Development and the Culture of Manhood. Gilligan is currently coordinating the formation of the new Harvard Center on Gender and Education. This is becoming a reality much more quickly than expected due to the donation of 12.5 million dollars by actress Jane Fonda. 2.5 million of the donations is earmarked for an endowed chair to be named for Professor Gilligan. Fonda found
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