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Her criticisms were published in 1982 in her most

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Her criticisms were published in 1982 in her most famous book titled, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. She came to be known as the founder of "difference feminism". Many feminists insisted that there are no differences between males and females. Gilligan asserted that women have differing moral and psychological tendencies than men. According to Gilligan, men think in terms of rules and justice and women are more inclined to think in terms of caring and relationships. She asks that Western society begin to value both equally. She outlines three stages of moral development progressing from selfish, to social or conventional morality, and finally to post conventional or principled morality. Women must learn to tend to their own interests and to the interests of others. She thinks that women hesitate to judge because they see the complexities of relationships. There has been criticism of Gilligan's work and much of it has come from Christina Hoff Sommers, PhD. She says that Gilligan has failed to produce the data for her research. She condemns the fact that Gilligan used anecdotal evidence, that researchers have not been able to duplicate her work, and that the samples used were too small. She thinks the field of gender studies needs to be put to the test of people from fields such as neuroscience or evolutionary psychology rather than from the area of education. She feels strongly that promoting an anti-male agenda hurts both males and females. Public policy and funding has been allocated based on Gilligan's data, which
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Sommers says is not publicly available. Sommers does not find it helpful for girls and women to be told that they are diminished or voiceless. The response to the criticisms has been just as adamant. Gilligan says that her findings have been published in leading journals and that Sommers points are not accurate. Gilligan received tenure as a full professor for the Harvard Graduate School of Education in 1986. Gilligan spent 1992-1994 teaching at the University of Cambridge in England. She was invited there as a Pitt Professor of American History and Institutions. Her area of academic expertise is in human development and psychology. She is a considered to be a pioneer of gender studies and particularly in the psychological and moral development of girls. In 1997, Gilligan was appointed to Harvard University's first position in gender studies, which is a newly endowed position at the Harvard Graduate School of Education known as the Patricia Albjerg Graham Chair in Gender Studies. She has been an integral part of the Harvard Project on Women's Psychology and Girls' Development that she initiated. This project unites the psychological study of women with the study of young girl's development. In addition, she works with a program called, Strengthening Healthy Resistance and Courage in Girls, which has now been enlarged to include boys in its prevention goals. It has been renamed the Harvard Project on Women's Psychology, Boy's
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Her criticisms were published in 1982 in her most famous...

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