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in Indochina’.In other instances, the role of religious institutions in the development of academic programmes was central. For example, the Department of Peace Studies at Bradford University in England was established in the early 1970s, under the influence of the Quakers (Society of Friends). Funds from philanthropic organizations such as the Institute for World Order, and the Ford and McArthur foundations were allocated to the development of courses and research programmes on conflict resolution on many campuses, particularly in the United States. The dominant ideology that surrounded peace studies in this environment led to the promotion of an a priori approach that viewed international conflict largely in Marxist terms-the developed West exploiting the undeveloped Third World. On this basis, the next stage in the ideological development of peace studies-postcolonialism and the a priori selection of favoured victims (i.e., Vietnamese, Palestinians, people of colour) and hated oppressors (the West, and the United States in particular)-was within easy grasp, as will be demonstrated in detail below. This trend continued during the era of de´tente in the 1970s, including the SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) processes and agreements, as well as the Helsinki process, with its emphasis on confidence building measures (CBMs) and links between the three baskets-security, economic interdependence, and civil society (democracy, human rights, press freedom, etc.). In these processes, the level of academic involvement in the negotiations was quite significant, including participation in unofficial ‘track-two’ meetings and publication of analyses. Quasi-academic peace groups such as Pugwash (involving scientists from different countries) provided informal and unofficial frameworks for discussions that were designed to influence public policy. At the same time, the research community published analyses, developed theories and held conferences based on these activities. Major universities in different countries opened such programmes; some based on the discipline of international relations or international law, others in the framework of political studies or psychology and yet others as interdisciplinary programmes. Over the years, these programmes became independent, offering advanced degrees and hiring specialized tenured faculty. In addition, a number of journals in this field have been established, such as the Journal of Conflict Resolution, the Journal of Peace Studies, and International Negotiation. The creation of the government-funded US Institute of Peace (USIP) in the 1980s, and the allocation of significant funds to support academic research, marked a further step in this process. Duringthis period, a number of conflict resolution theories and peace studies models have been developed and are used widely in research activities. These research frameworks include approaches based on game theory, ‘reconciliation’, pre-negotiation, ‘ripeness’, intercultural communication, and mediation. A vast literature has developed focusing on these frameworks and their applications.