# Specific method of estimating the internal

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specific method of estimating the internal consistency reliability of a measureâ€“ can be thought of as analogous to the average of all possible split half correlations
Validityï‚·Crucial for any kind of meaningful measurement, validity deals with accuracy or precision ofmeasurementï‚·Construct Validity:used to determine how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure,construct validity is usually verified by comparing the test to other tests that measure similarqualities to see how highly correlated the two measures areoTranslation Validity:type of construct validity related to how well you translate the ideaof your measure into its operationalizationoFace validity:checks that â€˜on its faceâ€™ the operationalization seems like a goodtranslation of the constructoContent validity:check of the operationalization against the relevant content domain forthe construct (extent to which items on a test are fairly representative of the entiredomain the test seeks to measure)oPredictive Validity:type of construct validity based on the idea that your measure isable to predict what It theoretically should be able to predictoConcurrent Validity:operationalizations ability to distinguish between groups that itshould theoretically be able to distinguish between (how well a new test compares to awell-established test)oConvergent Validity:degree to which the operationalization is similar to (converges on)other operationalizations to which it should be theoretically similaroDiscriminant Validity:degree to which the operationalization is not similar to (divergesfrom) other operationalizations that it theoretically should not be similar toï‚§If you can demonstrate that you have evidence for both convergent anddiscriminate validity, then youâ€™ve demonstrated that you have evidence forconstruct validity â€“but neither one alone is sufficient for establishing constructvalidityoOperationalization: translating a construct you wanted to measure into the real measureChapter 7 â€“ Survey ResearchSelecting the Survey Method â€“ questions you might ask;population issuessampling issuessamplingissuesbias issuesadministrative issuesï‚·Can the population units be identifiedï‚·Is the population literateï‚·Are there language issues?ï‚·Will the population cooperateï‚·What are the geographic restrictionsï‚·What data is available?ï‚·Can respondents be foundï‚·Who is the respondentï‚·Can all members of the population be sampledï‚·Are response rates likely to be a problemï‚·Will incentives for participation helpï‚·What types of questions can you ask
ï‚·Will filter questions be neededï‚·Can question sequence be controlledï‚·Will long response scales be usedï‚·Can social desirability be avoidedï‚·Can interviewer distortion and subversion be controlledï‚·Can false respondents be avoidedï‚·Costsï‚·Timeï‚·Facilitiesï‚·PersonnelSurvey Formatï‚·Dichotomous response format: question response format that allows the respondent to choosebetween only two possible responses (Yes/No, True/False, Agree/Disagree)ï‚·Nominal response format: has a number beside each choice where the number has no meaningother than a placeholder (2 for a lawyer)ï‚·

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