Hezbollah transforms struggle in three ways - (1) non-Palestinian guerrilla force closely involved against Israel - (2) for first time, ISLAMIST party takes central role - (3) for first time, non-state military force defeats Israel — potent model for others to imitate IV. Hamas' Rise to 2000 - Hezbollah = Lebanese, Hamas = Palestinian - Hezbollah = Shiite, Hamas = Sunni - Hamas operates under Israeli occupation, much weaker than Hezbollah - Hamas’ heavy reliance on terrorism displays this military weakness - similarities Hezbollah and Hamas: - (1) both movements cohere in mid / late 1980s - (2) both fervently Islamist - (3) both openly anti-Semitic - (4) both look to Iran and Syria for support / arms - (5) both committed to Israel’s destruction - HAMAS = acronym for Islamic resistance movement, Hamas itself means “zeal” in Arabic - paraplegic man founds Hamas (?) = Sheik Ahmed Yassin - paralyzed in wrestling accident - calm demeanor, religious devotion —> enormous popularity - Yassin formulates Hamas charter: according to this, God gave Palestine to Muslims until judgment day - only way to reclaim Palestine is armed struggle
- Hamas charter very genocidal; PLO hadn’t joined anti-Semitism, Hamas gloried in it - Hamas’ view of the world was historically illiterate - Palestinian disillusionment after Oslo —> Hamas benefits - Palestinians see PLO trying to make peace, and failed — conclusion that Hamas drew: Israel will never give us our land, or our rights, all Israel understands is violence, so the only solution is violence - Islam much more AUTHENTIC, genuine expression than W Ideology - Western lacks spiritual, moral dimension — Hamas emphasizes charity, family, community, gives practical expression to these ideals by building schools, clinics, etc — in all these ways, Hamas parallels Hezbollah - Hamas appeal to W Educated teachers, students, doctors, etc, but base of support ALWAYS been the poorest, least educate of the population - Hamas founded in 1987, 2 years after Hezbollah (just as first Intifada began) - in practice, Hamas begins challenging PLO, refuses to join PLO - Hamas builds up network of schools, charities, and thus its popularity - Hamas money: - local donations - wealthy patrons in Gulf States / Saudi Arabia - Iran - once Oslo gets started, Hamas repeatedly sends suicide bombers against Israeli civilians -
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- Fall '11
- Hamas, Hezbollah, Syria backs Hezbollah