3. Southern secessionists warned that the election of Lincoln would split the Union. a. Lincoln not an abolitionist; yet issued no statement to quell southern fears. b. Lincoln chose not to campaign; let his record stand on its ownXVIII. Presidential election of 1860A. Lincoln elected with only 40% of the vote; most sectional election in history. 1. Lincoln won all Northern states except NJ and MO (180 electoral votes to 123) a. Lincoln not allowed on the ballot in 10 southern states b. South Carolina satisfied that they could now secede.2. Breckinridge won all Deep South states plus AK, MD, and DE 3. Bell won border states of VA KY and mid-slave state of TN 4. Douglas won only MO and NJ but finished 2nd in popular votes B. South still had both Houses of Congress and majority on Supreme CourtXIX. Southern states secede from the Union A. December, 1860, South Carolina unanimously voted to secede fromthe UnionB. Within six weeks, six other states seceded (MS, FL, AL, GA, LA, TX)all during Buchanan’s "lame-duck" period. -- 4 others seceded in April, 1861, after beginning of Civil War (VA, AK, NC,TN); they refused to fight fellow southerners and agree to Lincoln’s call for volunteers. C. Confederate States of Americaformed in Montgomery Alabama meeting. -- Jefferson Davischosen as president of provisional government to be located at Richmond, VA (after Fort Sumter). D. President Buchanan did little to prevent southern secession. 1. Believed Constitution did not give him authority to stop secession with force. 2. More significantly, northern army was not ready to fight a war. 3. Many of his advisors were prosouthern 4. Northern sentiment favored a peaceful settlement rather than war. 5. Lincoln continued Buchanan’s policy when he became president. 6. Use of force would likely have driven border states of MD and KY to secede (would probably have meant the end of the Union).
E. Reasons for southern secession (mostly related to slavery) 1. Political balance appeared to favor the North. 2. Hated sectional Republican party which appeared to threaten Southern rights3. Hated free-soil criticism and abolitionism, and northern interference such as the Underground Railroad and John Brown’s raid. 4. Many southerners felt secession would be unopposed a. Northern industrialists dependent on southern repayment of loans and cotton could not afford to cut economic ties. b. Southern debts could be repudiated in case of war, hurting northern banks 5. Many hoped to end long-time dependence to the North. a. South could now develop its own banking and shipping and trade directly with Europe. b. Could escape high tariffs championed by northerners. 6. Southerners believed they had the moral high grounda. 13 original states had voluntarily entered the Union (compacttheory); now southern states were voluntarily withdrawing from it.b. Saw self-determination of the Declaration of Independence as applying to them. (Right to replace gov’t with one that meets the needs of the people)XX. Crittenden amendments-- final attempt at compromise A. Proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden of KY (heir to political throne of Clay)B. Designed to appease the South C. Provisions 1. Slavery in the territories would be prohibited north of 36-30 but given full federal protection south of that line, even if new territories were acquired (e.g. Cuba)2. Popular sovereignty for future states.