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Human performance limitations toxic hazards ca rb on

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Human Performance&Limitations
TOXICHAZARDSCarbonmonoxide Aviation fuels are mainly a mixtureofhydrocarbons and during the processofcombustionthey combine with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water. These products are expeLledfrom the engineinthe exhaust.By farthemost dangerousofthese gases is carbon monoxide whichispresentinmuch higher concentrationsinthe exhaustofpiston enginesIbetween 3% and 9%Ithan it is in gas turbine engines [about 0.003%].When carbonmonoxide is preserHinthe lungs, it enters the blood stream by combining with the haemoglobininthe blood. takiogthe place wl1ichisnormally occupied by oxygen. Relatively small tracesofcarbon monoxideinthe environmentcan have a devastating effect on human performance.<f:iAt very low levels.there arc no symptoms [carbon monoxide is presentincigarette smoke]<f:iHowever assaturation rises, there is an insidious. marginal impairmentofperformance which isaggravated by exert ion<f:iAs the saturation increases, the first symptoms appear. They include slight headache. fatigue and a milddiscomfortinbreathing<f:iAt still higher levels thereisan impairmentofvision, mental confusion [difficultyinperformingrelatively simple mental calculations]. severe headache and sometimes vomiting<f:iVery high concentrations resultinunconsciousness and death.The most common sourceofcarbon monoxideinthe cockpitofa light aircraft [particularly a single engine aircraft],is a leaking exhaust system. Even though carbon monoxide itselfisa colourless. odourless and tasteless gas. thereare always othergases containedinthe exhaust whichdohave a distinctive odour. Always take the smellofexhaustfumes very seriously and investigate the cause.exhaus1gasesHuman Performance&LimitationsIna typical light single engine aircraft, the cabinisheated by airwhich has passed through a heat exchanger.The heat exchanger can be thoughtofas a canister whichSUITOundsa sectionofthe hot exhaust pipe. Cold ambientairenters via a ductand is forced to pass over the hot surfaceofthe exhaust pipe.Theheatedairis then directed via another duct into the cabin.Obviously any cracksinthe pipe will allow exhaust fumes to flowinto the cabin along withthe heated air.gasesIfthe presenceofcarbon monoxideissus-pected. cabin heat vents shouldbeimmedi-ately shutoffandaUfreshairvents shouldbefully opened. Use oxygenifitis availableand land as soon as possible to investigate thecause. This willinvolve checking for exhaustsystem cracks and leaksinthecabin heatsyst.em.In single engine aircraft checktheengine lirewaU.Bob Tait's Aviation Theory SchoolPage 6.4

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Term
Fall
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
blood alcohol content, Bob Tait

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