Mady- Popular Discontent Revolution and Democratization in Egypt in a Globalizing world.pdf

39 see riad al khoury eu and us free trade agreements

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39. See Riad al Khoury, EU and U.S. Free Trade Agreements in the Middle East and North Africa , 8 C ARNEGIE P APERS 1, 22 (2008), available at files/cmec8_al_khouri_final.pdf (discussing free trade agreements and perceptions of “Western-led globalization”). 40. Marie Duboc, Socipolitical Mobolization in Egypt , in S OCIAL P ROTEST AND C IVILIAN R EVOLUTIONS IN A RAB C OUNTRIES 143-45, (Nabil Abdelfattah ed., 2011). 41. D ENIS J. S ULLIVAN & K IMBERLY J ONES , G LOBAL S ECURITY W ATCH , E GYPT : A R EFERENCE H ANDBOOK 29 (2008). 42. I NT L C RISIS G ROUP , M IDDLE E./N. A FR . R. N O . 61: E GYPT ' S S INAI Q UESTION 1 (2007), available at 20Africa/North%20Africa/Egypt/61_egypts_sinai_question.pdf. This content downloaded from 131.94.16.10 on Fri, 11 Jan 2019 02:33:54 UTC All use subject to
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326 I NDIANA J OURNAL OF G LOBAL L EGAL S TUDIES 20:1 In the meantime, Egypt witnessed three important developments: two political and the third related to the labor sector, all concerned with informal politics. A. Kifaya Protest Movement The first political development consists of the emergence of the first protest movement called “enough” or the Kifaya movement, which opposed Mubarak’s plan for hereditary succession. 43 The Kifaya movement organized a series of demonstrations against the President and his plan; however, the protests were surrounded by a large number of Central Security soldiers. Nonetheless, Kifaya succeeded in achieving at least two important goals. The first was breaking the psychological barrier of fear, which prevented Egyptians from criticizing the president. Kifaya planted the seeds of a culture of social protest. The second accomplishment was overriding chronic differences and divisions within the Egyptian opposition and thus forming a protest movement. Kifaya was formed as a cross-ideological movement encompassing activists from both the left and right, as well as both Islamists and independents. However, the movement has not developed certain tools necessary for a successful protest movement, such as internal coherent organization, mobilization strategy, and recruitment means. Kifaya was also faced with obstacles related to the nature of the rentier state and clientelism with millions of people dependent on state jobs. Other obstacles included the divisions within the ranks of the opposition and Kifaya’s shortcomings in building long-term political alliances based on the basic tenets of democracy. Kifaya failed to mobilize a large number of people on its political agenda and was unable to impose itself as a political power with a strong and popular base. 44 Thus it remained an elitist movement in the eyes of many. B. Labor Protest Although the Mubarak regime had a tremendous ability to cope with economic challenges and deal with opposition actors, a wave of labor protests erupted, making social and economic demands during the first decade of the twentieth century.
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