Conversely when a team is not intrinsically held together by all members the

Conversely when a team is not intrinsically held

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Conversely, when a team is not intrinsically held together by all members, the consequences can be negative or sub-optimal. Sub-optimality occurs because each team member works towards different goals based on different value systems. This can result in dissatisfaction, a lack of productivity and commitment and a lack of teamwork or team spirit amongst team members (Poovan et al., 2006:25). With such a scenario, it would be the task of the team leader to try to create an environment that is conducive to a team culture that appreciates the values of the Ubuntu philosophy. Within an African society, oneness and sharing play a pivotal role in local communities and organisations – it is said in the Nyanja language that Mu umudzi muli mphamvu [unity is strength]. Community-based approaches also help to build synergies where the whole is more effective than the sum of individual parts. Under the Ubuntu philosophy, synergies are realised where the groupings are socially or culturally bound (Mangaliso, 2001:28-32; Prinsloo, 2000:275-285). The spirit of Ubuntu leads to cooperative and collaborative work environments, because the community is encouraged to participate, share and support all the team members (Regine, 2009:17-22; Van den Heuvel et al. , 2006:48). People can work together in community groups in order for them to be more productive, for example, they farm, construct roads, fish or fell trees together, while they are singing traditional songs as part of morale boosting. Thus, the community-based Ubuntu philosophy enhances productivity and organisational performance. Through the Ubuntu philosophy, synergies create a great deal of competitive advantage for organisations from employees who practise this philosophy and their teams. An African organisation can gain competitive advantages on the basis of several business premises, including effective human relationships with others, language and communication, decision-making, time management,
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135 productivity, age and leadership, and cultural beliefs (Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars, 1993). Such business premises about the Ubuntu’s contributions towards different areas of business perspectives is in conformity with English’s (2002:203) argument that it is the spirit of Ubuntu that can give the African continent an edge and that will allow it to find a way forward. Within the redesigning processes of foreign ideologies, an African organisation must be localised in terms of its systems to respond to socio-cultural and environmental demands. Overall, the above literature review shows that the Ubuntu philosophy conforms to a large extent with the understanding of the conceptual framework of this study in Figure 1 on p. 7. Culture and stakeholder relationships are regarded as one of the strategic themes of corporate performance. To facilitate all these relationships, there is a need for an effective communication system, which would be in line with the precepts of the Ubuntu philosophy. The importance of management decision-making and time management issues in facilitating productivity cannot be over-emphasised. The Ubuntu philosophy provides its own
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