Responsible for collecting taxes and maintaining a

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Responsible for collecting taxes and maintaining a local armySupposed to send the taxes to the caliph, but sometimes kept it
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945In the eighth century, only about eight percent of the people living under Abbasid rule were Muslims.Number of converts increases and within two hundred years, over seventy percent of the population had converted to IslamThe caliph established a judicial system throughout the Empire.Judges (qadis) were appointed for each province, with a chief qadi in Baghdad.
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945Judges were trained in the Quran and hadith.Judges were appointed from the ulama, or community of learned men.Trained and taught at schools often held at mosquesThe ulama also preached to men and women in the mosque.
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945Legal disputes might be settled at the mosque by the ulama.Even the Abbasid royal family was subject to the judgments of the qadi.No other contemporary empire had as advanced a judicial system.
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945Abbasid SocietyExcept for the privileged status of the royal family, Islamic society was egalitarian.Class divisions were basic: rural/urban, Muslim/non-Muslim, free person/slave.Movement between classes was possible.
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945Abbasid rulers increasingly adopted Sasanian traditions of royal privilege.The caliph sat on a curtained throne and visitors had to kiss the ground in front of him.Also adopted the title "shadow of God on earth."Many in the ulama thought this violated privileges belonged to God.
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945Some groups were more honored and respected than others.Those who were descendants of MuhammadMembers of the ulama, the educated eliteThe cultured elite, or courtiers, including those who patronized the arts and those who created the arts
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945How much people followed the tenets of Islam varied from person to person.Most people, whether urban or rural, prayed five times a day and attended Friday prayers at a mosque.The poor could not always afford to go on the hajj.
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945Because Islam emphasized education, most families tried to send their sons to the mosque schools for a couple of years at least.Students learned basic Arabic in order to recite the Quran.Daughters were not sent to schools but could be educated at home.At the schools, boys might be trained for the ulama or to be merchants.
The Abbasid Caliphate United, 750–945Merchants were also respected within the Abbasid culture.Muhammad and two early caliphs had been merchants.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Erin Ragsdale
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