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ECE _ DSST Organizational Behavior

If someone doesnt speak its assumed he or she is in

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to be an illusion of unanimity. If someone doesn’t speak, it’s assumed he or she is in full agreement. Groupshift is a change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that members within the group would make. This phenomenon indicates that in discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at a solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold. In some situations, caution dominates, and there is a conservative shift. More often, however, the evidence indicates that groups tend toward a risky shift. Brainstorming is an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. This process is meant to overcome pressures for conformity in the interacting group that retard the development of creative alternatives. In a typical brainstorming session, the group leader states the problem in a clear manner so that it is understood by all participants. Members then offer as many alternatives as they can in a given length of time. Brainstorming is only a process for generating ideas.
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The nominal group technique is a group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion. This technique restricts discussion or interpersonal communication during the decision-making process. Group members are all physically present, but members work independently. Before any discussion takes place, each person independently writes down his or her ideas on the problem. Then each member takes turns presenting one idea to the group. No discussion takes place until all ideas have been recorded. The group then discusses ideas for clarity. Finally each group member silently rank-orders the ideas. The final decision is made based on the idea with the highest aggregate ranking. The Delphi technique is a group decision method in which individual members, acting separately, pool their judgments in a systematic and independent fashion. This method is similar to the nominal group technique except that it doesn’t allow or require members to be physically present. The steps in this technique are as follows: (1) Problem is identified and members are asked to provide possible solutions through a series of questionnaires; (2) Each member anonymously completes the questionnaire; (3) Results are compiled, transcribed, and reproduced at a central location; (4) Each member receives a copy; (5) After viewing results, members are again asked for their solutions; (6) These steps are repeated until consensus is reached. Technological forecasting involves predicting the state of technology in the future . One of the most popular approaches to technological forecasting was developed by the RAND Corporation and is known as the Delphi Method.
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