Module_04_Lab_Worksheet_04232018.docx

From the first exposure to a specific pathogen and

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From the first exposure to a specific pathogen and onward, our innate defenses will provide effective and immediate protection (only to the defenses ability) to that pathogen or any other. The adaptive defenses are classified as humoral immunity (B-cells) and cellular immunity (T cells) and depend on prior exposure to effectively defend our body from pathogens. The adaptive defenses, when functioning properly, will defend our body from a wide range of infectious agents, abnormal body cells such as cancer and any other harmful agents. There are three vital points to our body’s adaptive defenses: 1. Specificity- it recognizes and targets specific antigens, 2. Systemic- the immune response is not localized to the initial infection site, 3. Memory- it creates a specific memory to a particular antigen; allowing for a quicker and stronger response on future exposure. Humoral immunity consists of B-lymphocytes that ultimately produce antibodies that are specific to one type of antigen, which circulate freely throughout the blood and lymph. Antibodies block and tag an antigen for destruction by other immune cells. Cellular immunity consists of T-lymphocytes that ultimately produce cytotoxic T cells that directly destroy specific antigens within the body. Materials ELISA test kits Markers/color pencils of various colors Large Post-It pads or presentation paper Lancets Microscope slide Band-Aids Alcohol wipes Toothpicks Pre-Lab Evaluation Questions The pre-lab evaluation questions must be answered prior to lab and demonstrated to your lab instructor. You must read through the assigned chapter readings, lab introduction, objectives, overview and procedure to answer these questions. Please cite your work for any reference source you utilize in answering these questions.
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1. In your own words: What is an antigen? What is antigenic determinant/epitope? What is an antibody? What is an antigen-antibody interaction/reaction? Antigen: any substance that can cause immune response-antibodies. An epitope is a site on the surface of any antigen where a single antibody binds to it. An antibody is a Y shaped protein that functions to identify and remove any specific foreign antigen such as a bacteria or virus. An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific chemical reaction between antibodies and antigens during an immune response (Betts, 2017). 2. How do antibodies in our body function to provide protection against pathogens? Antibodies bind directly to antigens to prevent damage to healthy cells by blocking the pathogen, stimulating other parts of the immune system to destroy pathogens. They also mark pathogens through phagocytosis (Betts, 2017) . 3. Briefly compare and contrast innate and adaptive body defenses?
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