What are the levels of protein folding a What part of the amino acid has the

What are the levels of protein folding a what part of

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18.What are the levels of protein folding? a. What part of the amino acid has the greatest influence on the overall structure of the protein, the amine group (-NH 2 ), R group, or the carboxyl group (-COOH) ? The R group b. A mutation that alters a single amino acid within a protein can alter: A. The primary structure B. The secondary structure C. The tertiary structure D. all of the above. 19. Using the images below, determine if the polypeptide contains primary, secondary, tertiary, and/or quaternary structure.
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Bottom left = primary - just sequence of amino acids held by peptide bonds Top left = second - hydrogen bonds - forms chains or sheets based on R groups Bottom right= tertiary - how hydrophobic or philllic R groups interact with each other Top right= quaternary - how multiple polypeptide chains interact 20. What is denaturation and under what conditions does it occur? 21. Carbon cycle: What processes bring carbon to the surface from the atmosphere?
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Plants use CO2 in the air for photosynthesis- this converts carbon into a solid form to be consumed by other animals. COs also dissolves into oceans What processes take carbon out of the earth’s surface? After animals consume carbon, they go through cell respiration and release CO2 back into the atmosphere. Also the burning of fossil fuels releases carbon into the atmosphere. And, large amounts can be released in geological activity like volcanic eruption and CO2 being released from the ocean due to rising temperature. Methanogens also produce CO2 through anaerobic cellular respiration. 22. Nitrogen cycle: What processes bring nitrogen to the surface from the atmosphere? In nitrogen fixation, bacteria called microbes convert N2 gas into ammonia which plants use. What processes take nitrogen out of the earth’s surface? Animals consume those plants and then obtain usable nitrogen. Then as they die and decay, bacteria convert the nitrogen back into N2 gas.
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23. Water cycle: What processes bring water to the surface from the atmosphere? Water vapor condenses in the air and then falls to the surface as precipitation What processes take water out of the earth’s surface? 1) Groundwater being taken up by plants and then transpirated into the environment. 2) Water from oceans and lakes evaporates into vapor 24. Phosphorus cycle:
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What processes bring phosphorus to the surface from the atmosphere? Animals release phosphate in excretion where it goes back into the soil, or when they decompose. Those sediments are turned into rock which eventually are weathered and worn down and the minerals go into the oceans and soil for plants to absorb. Or, phosphate can be used as fertilizer and the excess washes off into the oceans.
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