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09 10 Muscle Contraction I and II

Sources of atp free atp immediate substrate for

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Sources of ATP Free ATP : Immediate substrate for myosin ATPase Creatine Phosphate (~ATP Buffer) : Rapid source of ATP during muscle contraction Glycolysis : Main source of ATP during anaerobic exercise Oxidative Phosphorylation : Main source of ATP during aerobic exercise
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Muscle Fiber Types Slow-Oxidative (Type I): Slow speed, high oxidative phosphorylation capacity, red, high fatigue resistance Fast-Oxidative (Type IIa): Fast speed, high oxidative phosphorylation capacity, red, intermediate fatigue resistance Fast-Glycolytic (Type IIb): Fast speed, high glycolytic capacity, white, low fatigue resistance Histological staining of distinct metabolic enzymes in different muscle fiber types.
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Muscle Fatigue During Maintained Isometric Tetanus
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Fatigue-Resistance of Different Muscle Fiber Types Type I Type IIa Type IIb
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Successive Recruitment of Three Types of Motor Units Fast-Glycolytic Fast-Oxidative-Glycolytic Slow-Oxidative SO FOG FG
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Control of Motor Movement Muscle Spindles – to maintain muscle length Golgi Tendon Organs – to prevent muscle damage
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Muscle Spindles Function: to maintain muscle length Intrafusal Fibers : Specialized fibers innervated by sensory neuron and gamma motor neuron Extrafusal Fibers : “Ordinary” muscle fibers innervated by alpha motor neurons Coactivation of Alpha and Gamma Motor Neurons : For setting intrafusal fiber length in parallel with extrafusal fiber length
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Structure of Muscle Spindle and Golgi Tendon Organ
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Stretch Reflex
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Alpha-Gamma Coactivation Extrafusal fiber Intrafusal fiber Muscle Stretch Extrafusal Fiber Contraction/Shortening Alpha-Gamma Coactivation External Load-Induced Stretching of Intrafusal Fiber Extrafusal Fiber Shortening- Induced Slacking of Intrafusal Fiber Alpha-Gamma Coactivation Maintains Tension on Intrafusal Fiber
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Golgi Tendon Organs Function: to prevent muscle damage Afferent Fibers : Entwined within muscle tendon Inhibitory Reflex : Stretching of Golgi tendon organs leads to inhibitory input to the alpha motor neuron, leading to reflex relaxation
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Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle is striated muscle Intercalated disk (for mechanical and electrical connections) Gap Junctions for Electrical Connection Desmosomes for Mechanical Connection
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Temporal Relationship Between Action Potential and Contraction in Cardiac Muscle Cells Refractory Period Action Potential Contraction Time
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