If ball causes harm, if it was not intended, actors goodness is (4) and if intended its (1.5) Three year olds don’t understand that whether you hurt someone or not, if it’s not intended you’re still a good person The “no harm intended” scenarios should rate the same on the goodness scale whether harm was done or not because the intentions are good but the child rates the scenario where harm was done as less Likewise, when harm was intended, whether or not harm happened they’re still equally as bad but children rate the person who caused no harm as better For example, if two children are ice-skating and Sam slips and falls and accidentally kicks Jimmy and causes him to fall, Jimmy will be mad at Sam even though Sam didn’t mean to do it and it was by accident because Jimmy doesn’t understand intentions Intended to harm and it occurs > unintended to harm and it occurs > intended to harm and it doesn’t occur > unintended to harm and it doesn’t occur ** This means that children focus on the end results when thinking about others. Intentions (Children with ASD) ***Ability to read minds is lacking in children with ASD Theory of Mind “Strange Stories” - Stories are developed, and catch some intention/meaning. - The strange stories are used to test different categories: a.)Theory of Mind b.)Figures of Speech c.) Persuasion d.)Contrary Emotions e.)White lies f.) Misunderstanding **So basically, you tell children with ASD a story, and ask questions about them. A series of 24 short stories with ambiguous endings. Control stories were about physical events, and experimental stories were about intentions. - Adults with ASD performed worse on the theory of mind strange stories than physical events stories, and performed worse than 9 year olds on the experimental stories.
Summary Social-cognitive development runs parallel with cognitive development Children’s understanding of self and others are intertwined Children’s understanding of self and others depends on their level of cognitive development o Concreteness versus abstraction 0 Metacognition o Theory of Mind Moral Development - When people are trying to know what is moral, they think about how it affects them. “How does it affect me?” Three approaches to Moral Development: - Psychoanalytic perspective: Role of the moral emotions. Freud etc - Behaviorist: completely rejecting any inner thoughts we couldn’t see or observe directly. Role of moral action - And cognitive developmentalist: Role of moral reasoning (thinking about “right and wrong” Psychoanalytic: - Freud said that we develop morals because superego is developed at end of phallic stage at age 4-5. - Id makes you want to do bad stuff, superego lets you know what’s bad and tells you what’s good - Superego is comprised of two components and they provide us with punishment if we don’t behave morally.
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- Fall '13