peptides involved in appetite regulation as well as lipid metabolism. Moreover, a large number ofanimal studies and preliminary human data show that inulin-type fructans reduce the risk of colon carcinogenesis and improve the management of inflammatory bowel diseases.Another fructan, oligofructose, works in conjunction with the inulin-type fructan as a dietary fiber, affecting gut microflora by increasing health-promoting bacteria and reducing potentially harmful species. This is called a pre-biotic function (This term, along with probiotic, isbandied about when people are promoting healthy diets.) This oligofructose and inulin combination also induces changes in the colon’s epithelium that are constructive, rather than destructive as occurred in celiac disease and prolonged conditions of IBS from fermentation of FODMAPs.Polyols:The sugar alcohols include sorbitol, mannitol, and xylitol. Mannitol is a sugar which, when ingested, does not raise blood glucose levels as much as sucrose. Therefore it is a preferred sugar for diabetics to use. Mannitol is one of the most abundant energy- and carbon-storage molecules in nature, produced by a plethora of organisms, including bacteria, yeasts, fungi, algae, lichens, and many plants. Another unique application of mannitol is to reduce acutely-raised intracranial pressure (e.g., brain trauma), until other procedures can be applied.Xylitol is made either from corn cobs or tree bark! The preferred source is corn cobs since they are a discard from corn harvest. If taken from trees, it means the end of the tree—not an environmentally friendly process! The corn cob source uses a natural ion-exchange interaction of hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, and steam. The waste water from this process is used for mushroom farming adjacent to the factory itself, and the pulp is used for fuel.Xylitol has a third of the calories of sucrose which makes it a good sugar for diabetics. Interestingly enough, xylitol is toxic to dogs, should they come across some candy containing xylitol.Sorbitol intolerance is very much genetically-based. Some statistics that relate to this principle are the following:Frequency in population:79
More than 50% of adults experience significant symptoms following ingestion of more than 10 g.Intolerance appears more common in Asians and American blacks than in whites.Overall, 30 to 75% of adults malabsorbed 10g of sorbitol.Present in up to 70% of patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome()More on lactose intoleranceLactose intolerance comes in varying degrees of severity—it isn’t all or nothing. The lactase enzyme is produced in the cells of the epithelium that line the small intestine and is secreted into the lumen of the intestine. Here it catalyzes the breakdown of the lactose disaccharide into its two component sugars, glucose and galactose. Reduced enzyme production means the undigested lactose sugars are not absorbed and become fodder for bacterial fermentation with all the problems associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).