Negative when people believe they have lost sth from

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Negative - when people believe they have lost sth from the change - e.g. lost contact to friends, new o ce layout, personal identity, sense of security, higher transportation cost - Mixed - when people have mixed feelings or are neutral about the change because benefits and losses balance out - e.g. liked the noon shopping but not the higher transportation cost - Coping cycle (Carnall, 2003): the significant impact on individuals and their performance level during change, show that employees usually go through series of transitions: Stage 1- Denial: Deny need for change, even in the midst of di cult working conditions, because of their fear of the unknown „we have always done it this way“ Stage 2 - Defense: Realizing that change is going to happen, but defending their job/ territory because they do not know how to deal with changes - feelings of frustration and depression Stage 3 - Discarding: Begin to let go the past by recognizing the need/inevitability of change, and start to grow into new situation - begin to look into the future Stage 4: Adaptation: Start adapting to the change by testing new situation by themselves, new behavior, ways of doing things - process of trail and error Stage 5: Internationalization: Made sense of new situation and new behavior is seen as normal. Improvement of performance due to learning and reflection -> people do experience this curve di ff erently; some take longer, others leave out some stages - own speed, some people might even leave -> management has to be able to cope with this - leadership adaptation - Reasons for resistance to change - may lead to increased sickness absence level Kotter & Schlesinger (2008) four reasons for resistance: - Desire not to lose something - Misunderstandings about the need for change - Belief that the change does not make sense for the organization 4 Downloaded by Shameer Babu Thonnan Thodi ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|4323350
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Donnerstag, 14. Dezember 2017 - Low tolerance to change generally Fear of the unknown e.g. job losses, technological challenges, etc. Lack of trust - when stakeholders doubt motives pf change agents Lack of proper communication Culture shock Eccles (1994): - Ignorance - failure to understand the problem - Anxiety - fear of being unable to cope with new situation - Inhibition - willingness to change is low - Loss - change has unacceptable personal costs - Types of resistance Fronda and Moriceau (2008): Revolt - explicit and active, confrontational, directed at managers; usually follows total breakdown in communication Withdrawal - passive resistance to what is seen as oppression at work; retreat or mental pulling-out from work environment Discreet - most widespread and less obvious; go slow (going though the motions); although everyone talks about the change everyone is satisfied with status quo 5 Downloaded by Shameer Babu Thonnan Thodi ([email protected]) lOMoARcPSD|4323350
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Donnerstag, 14. Dezember 2017 - Resistance as a product of background conversation of change - Ford, Ford and McNamara (2002): Resistance as a socially constructed reality - tend to respond more to background
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  • Fall '19
  • Shameer Babu Thonnan Thodi

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