O awake and alert beta waves high frequency low

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o Awake and alert – beta waves (high frequency, low intensity) Most inconsistent brain wave, reflects wide variation in sensory input that you process during a day o Relaxing – alpha waves (less frequent, more consistent, more intense) Sleep occurs in different stages characterized by unique brain activity o Stage 1 – NREM 1 or N1, falling asleep stage, marked by theta waves o Stage 2 – NREM 2 or N2, light sleep, marked by sleep spindles (very high intensity brain waves) Associated w/ processing of memories, makes up about 55% of sleep o Stage 3 – NREM 3 or N3, greater muscle relaxation, 20-25% of sleep, marked by delta waves o REM sleep – marked by rapid eye movement, brain waves occur less intensely, makes up 20% of sleep There are many different theories about why humans dream o (1) Nonconscious attempt to make sense of our daily experiences and learning o (2) Freud – dreams represent taboo or troublesome wishes or desires o We dream at every stage of sleep, but dreams during REM sleep are most vivid Sleep serves many functions – period of mental and physical restoration, development in children Drugs operate on physiology in a variety of ways – drugs often classified according to their effects o (1) Hallucinogens – alter perceptions by creating hallucinations that are not real Many used as recreational substances in industrialized societies like marijuana, LSD, MDMA Euphoria – intense feeling of pleasure, excitement, or happiness Active ingredient in marijuana is THC – produces distortions in perception of time o (2) Depressants – slow down body’s physiological and mental processes Alcohol reduces inhibition, increases GABA, associated w/ loss of balance & coordination (1) Toxic (2) Associated w/ more risk-taking behavior (3) Addictive Blood alcohol content - % of alcohol in person’s blood, risk of death at 0.3-0.4% Opiates or narcotics – substances synthesized from poppy flower Stimulate endorphin production in brain – used as pain killers in medical field o (3) Stimulants – speed up body’s physiological and mental processes Most common stimulants are caffeine and nicotine – inexpensive which leads to widespread use People feel more alert under the infuences of stimulants Stimulants like cocaine and meth are illegal – block re-uptake of dopamine in the brain Dopamine builds up in synapse creating euphoria and alertness
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How to Sleep Plants and animals developed their own internal clocks to respond to changes in light and darkness o Chemical clocks are found in every organism with 2 or more cells and in some organisms w/ 1 cell
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