99mapped and legally claimed by the United States. Nonetheless, most of the vast territory, hometo a variety of native peoples, remained unknown to Americans.Jefferson concluded his first term on a wave of popularity. He had maintained the peace,reduced taxes, and expanded the boundaries of the United States. Not surprisingly, heoverwhelmed his Federalist opponent in the presidential election of 1804. In the electoralcollege, Jefferson received 162 votes to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney’s 14. Republicanscontrolled Congress. John Randolph, the most articulate member of the House ofRepresentatives, exclaimed, “Never was there an administration more brilliant than that of Mr.Jefferson up to this period. We are indeed in ‘the full tide of successful experiment!’”During Jefferson’s second term (1805-1809), the Untied States found itself in the midst ofa world at war. A brief peace in Europe ended abruptly in 1803, and the two military giants of theage, France and Great Britain, fought for supremacy on land and sea. During the early stages ofthe war, the Untied States profited from European adversity. As “neutral carriers,” Americanships transported goods to any port in the world where they could find a buyer, and Americanmerchants grew wealthy serving Britain and France. Napoleon’s successes on the battlefield,however, quickly changed everything.Jefferson’s foreign policy, especially the Embargo Actof 1807, elicited the most outragefrom his Federalist critics. As Napoleon Bonaparte’s armies moved across Europe, Jeffersonwrote to a European friend that he was glad that God had “divided the dry lands of yourhemisphere from the dry lands of ours, and said ‘here, at least, be there peace.’” Unfortunately,the Atlantic Ocean soon became the site of Jefferson’s greatest foreign policy test, as England,France, and Spain refused to respect American ships’ neutrality. The greatest offenses came fromthe British, who resumed the policy of impressment, seizing thousands of American sailors andforcing them to fight for the British navy.Many Americans called for war when the British attacked the USS Chesapeakein 1807.