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1996). From the sensitive soul were variations to include: imagination and movement. In the imaginary portion of the soul only certain animals had the ability to possess these traits. This imagination he believed controlled one’s ability to form memories and the functioning of the brain. Movement was the next facet of the soul, which is involved in the desire to fulfill bodily needs such as appetite and rest (Francher, 1996). Lastly Aristotle believed in the power of reason but believed that only humans posed this type of soul characteristic. It was believed that the soul or portions of them were aligned in a hierarchical system in order to help the species survive.Rene DescartesRene Descartes was another foundational player in the history of psychology. His views on the body and mind were opposite of Aristotle’s theories. Descartes is considered by some to be the founder of modern day philosophy and rationalism. This concept of rationalism can be found as the groundwork for his theories. Rationalism is the view that the source of knowledge can be found through deductive reasoning. The theories he developed were based on a foundational concept of separating science from religion (Kirkeben, 2001). He developed the concept of dualism, which stated that there is a sound difference between the physical and mentalrealm so much that they should be considered separate entities.In relation to Aristotle, Descartes theory on the mind and body was that they were separate forms. In his ideologies the mental sphere is the incorporation of the soul and mind (Fancher, 1996). It was his belief that this sphere was immeasurable and thus not part of the
HISTORICAL CONCEPTS THAT ENDURE TIME4sciences. This concept differed because Descartes separated the mind from the system as a whole. The body or physical realm consisted of matter and energy, which is considered to be measurable (Kirkeben, 2001). The body was viewed as a mechanical system that operated under the principles of measurable energy.Comparing Aristotle and Rene DescartesAristotle and Rene Descartes’ theories about the mind and body were very controversial at the time. These forefathers of psychology and philosophy developed concepts that were used long after their time. Aristotle in comparison to Descartes believed in a singular system to describe the mind and body. These two components: mind and body where interconnected and thus could not exist without one another. Descartes on the other hand believed in the separation of the mind and body. It was he who developed the concepts of studying what is actually