Although most of their review focused on the

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Although most of their review focused on the relationship between dress and mental activities (social perception and social cog- nition), Lennon and Davis acknowledged relationships between clothing and human behavior. In their discussion of object vari- ables, a category that would subsume dress, the authors noted a group of studies that had investigated the impact of social perception as a function of dress on subsequent behav- ioral responses. Method To examine the research on dress and subsequent human behavior, we conducted a content analysis. Content analysis is a nonreactive research strategy “for making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of mes- sages” (Holsti, 1969, p. 14). According to Paoletti (1982), content analysis produces quantitative data from verbal or nonverbal communication. Using these definitions, content analysis can be applied to any type of communication and it is not unusual for researchers to assess progress in a field using a content analysis of research journals (e.g., Hutton, 1984; Lennon, Burns, & Rowold, 1995; Montgomery & Richey, 1975; Myers, Massy, & Greyser, 1980). Sources of Data Our data set was intended to include all published journal articles focused on human behavior and dress. The sources of data were 93 published studies published in jour- nal articles between 1955 and 2004. 5 Regardless of what the researcher or researchers labeled as the variable they studied (e.g., dress, clothing, attire, apparel, appearance, attractiveness, member status), in each of these articles some manipulation of dress was used to operationalize the con- cept under investigation. All of the dress manipulations were presented to partici- pants on a human body. The following indexes were searched for published research on dress and human behavior using 109 keywords: Psych Info, Expanded Academic Index, Clothing and Textile Arts Index, and World Textiles. 6 Some appropriate studies may be missing because, as Damhorst (1990) noted, researchers using dress stimuli do not always label their vari- able as dress, clothing, or appearance. Thus, not all studies involving dress manipulations may appear in indexing and abstracting ser- vices. A complete list of published research used as data for our study is available from the first author. Coding Data were coded to determine the follow- ing: types of behavior or behaviors investi- gated, the concepts operationalized by dress manipulations, whether dress had a signifi- cant effect on the behavior investigated, whether dress interacted with other inde- pendent variables to have an effect on behavior, the stated theory used to guide the research, the participant population in the research, and data analysis technique. Characteristics of the research method were also coded, such as stimulus sampling.

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