The steam would be used to drive a turbine to create electricity.10.46Fission reactions produce waste products of radioactive isotopes with long half lives. This makesdisposal of the waste difficult and costly. Nuclear accidents could release contamination into the environment which could, in turn, result in long term health hazards.
10.48Advantages of breeder reactors include the ability to make their own fuel from abundant uranium-238, and more cost effective operation than conventional nuclear power reactors. Disadvantages of breeder reactors include the potential of environmental damage, and the proliferation of the plutonium isotope used to build nuclear bombs.10.50Carbon rods absorb free neutrons as needed, thereby moderating the fission reaction.10.52Fusion10.54Carbon-12 is a stable isotope; its mass does not change with time. Carbon-14 is radioactive; its mass decreases predictably with time. Hence, the changing mass ratio of carbon-12 and carbon-14 can be used to indicate the approximate age of the object.10.564298Mo + 01n4299Mo10.58a.Iodine-131 is used as a tracer to determine the rate of iodine uptake by the thyroid gland.b.Thallium-201 is used as a tracer in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.10.60Medically useful isotopes may be produced by bombardment with neutrons or protons. Alternatively, a radioactive isotope may be a product of the radioactive decay of a substance thathas a longer half-life. (For example, Mo-99 decays to produce Tc-99m.)10.62a.Concrete is both thicker and more dense than wood paneling. As such it is a better absorber of radiation and would reduce the transmission of radiation through the walls.b.Lead is a very dense substance; it is a good absorber of radiation, including gamma radiation. Hence, a lead-lined apron significantly increases the level of protection for the person wearing the apron.10.64A major source of radiation is the sun; cosmic radiation. At high altitudes, the stratospheric density is low. Hence, it is a less-efficient absorber of radiation than the atmosphere at the earth'ssurface.10.66 A Geiger counter gives an instantaneous response to radiation. A film badge gives a picture of exposure over time. For this reason, a Geiger counter would be more appropriate for assessing immediate danger.10.68The lethal dose of radiation, LD50, is the dose that would be fatal to 50% of the exposed population within 30 days.10.70a.The rad (radiation absorbed dosage) is the dosage of radiation able to transfer 2.4 x 10-3calories of energy to 1 kilogram of matter.b.The rem (roentgen equivalent for man) is the product of the RAD and RBE (the relative biological effect).
1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters ZA X for a nurepresents the atomic number?