When ever alienated or depressed groups come to view that dominant culture is unjust or used as a tool for the ruling classes their exists a potential for collective behavior CB can emerge in structured settings Fads o Fads morph as they spread o As new group acquires it, some changes are made o Most have a commercial dimension o Companies try to exploit these
o Technology acts as factor that can increase fads Culture as indifferent, inadequate opposed to CB o Is looting ok after a disaster, justified taking? Continuum of cultural limits o Cannibalism o A redefinition of right and wrong People justify what they do, when unusual things are done • “I am morally justified in stepping out of the boundaries in this situation” Contagion Approach o Disease-like, uncontrollable o Mass hysteria Power of suggestibility overwhelm individuals Ones behavior in a crowd will differ than if that person was alone o Gustav Lebon Held negative views on the crowd Believed individuals were much different in crowds, they act destructively, under the influence of passion Behavior result as irrational extreme emotional impulses that are unleashed when traditional control mechanism weaken or breakdown o Suggestibility People will fall into the power of suggestion only when they are predisposed to feel or act that way • There has to be a “first” person or “key-noter” o Offers direction for the crowd o Initiates a chain reaction and legitimizes an action as more and more people follow o New norms produced can be regularized o Circular reaction Occurs when the normal interpretive phase of communication is interrupted by intense and accelerated milling (wandering with no purpose of direction, ultimately builds up intensity of issue) • Milling is usually also a precursor to CB • As tempo of crowd increases the inability of individuals to act on their own diminish and begin to follow the crowd o Milling can escalate to a point where it becomes a religious movement o Overtime this approach has been conceived as being flawed
o Can be a useful metaphor when conceived as suggestibility not as some overpowering infection that people cannot resist People do not lose the ability of decision making, rationality amongst individuals always exist, people do not become crazed zombies People only imitate others if they already posses a similar predisposition , already inclined to act that way Convergence Approach o People form crowds and acting crowds because they share certain predispositions or characteristics (ie beliefs, background characteristics) o Psychological version
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