into time demands for line managers. For example, the original item reads: “I just can’t find the energy in me to do all the things expected of me”. This items is translated in: “I just can’t the energy in me to perform all the HR activities expected of me”Competences To measure line managers perceived competences, the constructs “occupational self-efficacy” and “training” are used. The perception of someone’s own work is called occupational self-efficacy: “one’s belief in one’s own ability and competence to perform successfully and effectively in different situations and across different tasks in a job” (Schyns & Von Collani, 2002, p.227). This concept is based on theory of self-efficacy (Bandura, 1977) which refers to “the conviction that one can successfully execute a given behaviour required to produce certain outcomes” (p. 193). Schyns and Van Collani (2002) developed the occupational self-efficacy scale in order to produce a scale that relates to self-efficacy in the work-related domain. Nehles (2006) chose this scale, because this scale enabled measuring the competences of line managers to perform HR tasks based on their own perceptions about their competences in HRM.
28 Furthermore, items on the importance and sufficiency of the training courses were added, which were developed based on a pilot case study. The importance and sufficiency of training is discussed to have an effect on line managers’ competences and therefore researchers advocate a need for their continual training (McGovern et al., 1997; Renwick, 2000). Support To measure how line managers perceive the support they receive from HRM, the constructs “HR support service” and “HR support behaviour” were used. The support that line managers receive from HR professionals can be regarded as HRM services. These HRM services imply content related advice and coaching on how to perform HR activities. The quality of services can be defined as the customers overall perception of the service (Parasuraman, 1988). According to theory of Parasuraman et al. (1988) service quality exist of 5 dimensions: tangibles (physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel), reliability (ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately), responsiveness (willingness to help customers and provide prompt service), assurance (knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence) and empathy (caring, individualized attention for the customers). These items are based on the SERVQUAL scale on service quality (Parasuraman et al., 1988). This scale originally consists of these of five items, but Nehles (2006) used four of these items: reliability, responsiveness, empathy and assurance. Tangibles was not used because it is not applicable to the services delivered by HR professionals but more to the services provided for products.