Extrinsically motivated behavior behavior performed

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Extrinsically motivated behavior: behavior performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment o The behavior is performed not for its own sake but rather for its consequences o Ex: pay, praise, status Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Alderfer’s ERG Theory: - Theory of work motivation - Builds on Maslow’s thinking but reduces the number of universal needs from 5-3 and is more flexible in terms of movement between levels - Proposes that needs can be arranged in a hierarchy - According to ERG, a higher-level need can be a motivator even if a low-level need is not fully satisfied, and needs at more than one level can be motivators at any time EXPECTANCY THEORY
- Focuses on how employees decide which specific behaviors to perform and how much effort to extort - Concerned with how employees make choices among alternative behaviors and levels of effort - Focuses on employee’s perceptions - Addresses: o Does an individual believe that his or her inputs (such as effort on the job) will result in a given level of performance? Proposes that regardless of which outcomes are available, employees will not be motivated to contribute their inputs to the organization unless they believe it will result in achieving a given level of performance o Does an individual believe that performing at this level will lead to obtaining the outcomes he or she wants (pay, job security, a feeling of accomplishment and so fourth)? Indicates that employees will be motivated to perform at a given level only if that level leads to desired outcomes - Seeks to explain how employees go about making these various decisions - Identifies 3 factors that determine an employee’s motivation: 1. Valence: How Desirable is an Outcome?
2. Instrumentality: What is the Connection Between Job Performance and Outcomes?
3. Expectancy: What is the Connection Between Effort and Job Performance?
EQUITY THEORY - Based on the premise that an emp perceives the relationship between the outcomes- what the employee perceives the relationship between the outcomes and what the employee gets out of the job and organization and his or her inputs- what the emp contributed to the job and organization - Def: focuses on employee’s perspective of the fairness of their work outcomes and inputs o Outcomes include: pay fringe benefits, job satisfaction, status, opportunities for advancement, job security, and anything else the employees wants from the organization o Inputs include: special skills, training, education, work experience, effort on the job, time and anything else that employee believes they contribute - According to equity theory, it is not the objective level of outcomes and input that is important in determining work motivation - What is important to motivation is the way an emp perceives his or her outcome/input ratio compares to the outcome/ input ratio of another person o Other person is called referent = another emp or group of emp perceived to be similar to oneself; or can be oneself from another job - Equity theory addresses this question: are the outcomes perceived as being at an appropriate level in comparison to the inputs? - The theory proposes that from past experience or the observation of other, employees will have a sense of input levels that should result from certain outcomes Equity o When an individual’s outcome/ input ratio equals the outcome/input ration of the referent Inequity o When outcome/input ratios are not proportionally equal o

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