Changes in Neurons and Synapses Short term involves temporary changes within

Changes in neurons and synapses short term involves

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- Changes in Neurons and Synapses Short-term: involves temporary changes within neurons that alter their ability to release neurotransmitters Ex. Simple learning in Aplysia; gill withdrawal reflex: when siphon touched, gill reflexively withdraws; over time, Aplysia stops responding to stimulation (learning occurs) Habituation: caused by decrease in NT release at the synapses between sensory and motor cells Long-term Memory : involves lasting structural changes in the brain; neurons- growth of dendrites and spines; synapses-more receptor sites, new synapses formed; causes more calcium to enter cells, leading to changes Long-term Potentiation
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- Structural changes caused by simultaneous firing of cells, which strengthens their connections - Presynaptic cell becomes better able to stimulate the post-synaptic cell - Donald Hebb : made the first hypothesis about synaptic function in the human brain; cells that fire together, wire together Structural changes include: - More receptors in the post-synaptic cell membrane - Increase in dendritic branching and spines - Increase in axonal branching - Formation of new synapses *new memories are vulnerable to disruption until these processes are complete Memory Consolidation - Neural changes associated with long-term potentiation take time to develop - Sleep plays a role in ensuring consolidation new information - Long-term memories are also vulnerable to disruption or distortion; Memories may not ever completely solidify The very act of remembering can make memories unstable again Brain Areas Involved in Memory - Amygdala: Memories of fearful and other emotional events - Basal Ganglia (caudate putamen, globus pallidus): Procedural memory (new skills), and implicit learning of patterns and habits - Frontal Lobe: Short-term memory and working memory - Prefrontal Cortex and Parts of Temporal Lobe: Semantic(meaning) memory (words and pictures: names of objects, appearance of objects) - Cerebellum: Learning of classically conditioned responses - Hippocampus (and surrounding areas in temporal lobe): Critical in spatial learning and memory Critical in long-term declarative memories—formation and recall - Specialization explains how memory impairments can be so selective L-T Declarative Memory Storage - Probably takes place in cortical areas, not in the hippocampus - These areas would have been active during the original perception of the information or event - Cortical cells activated during exposure to new information are also activated during retrieval Memories are Distributed - The typical memory is a complex cluster of information—visual, auditory, etc.
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- The various components of a memory are likely stored at different sites - Hippocampus may bind together diverse aspects of a memory during encoding *Table 10.1 pg 367 know parts of the brain and their major roles Hormones, Emotion, and Memory - Hormones are released by the adrenal glands during stress and emotional arousal - These hormones can enhance memory: Epinephrine: related to adrenaline being released
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