His is incident on a second grating before being sent

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his is incident on a second grating before being sent he photomultiplier for detection. he exit grating enables detection at a chosen emission elength. uorescence is inherently more sensitive than orption and has a larger liner dynamic range.
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ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY DETECTOR DETECTOR Electrical conductivity detector is used in ion Chromatography. It measures the resistance and hen the conductivity of the solution from which a signal i Generated for detection.
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ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY DETECTOR DETECTOR Conductance of a given solution is C and is given by\ C = 1/R = a/l Where R = resistance in ohms = specific conductance a = cross-sectional area of the electrode l = distance between the electrodes Equivalent conductance is defined as = 1000 /c Where c is the concentration of the electrolyte in Gram equivalents/liter. C = 1/R = ca/1000 l Resistance is inversely proportional to the concentration.
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REFRACTIVE INDEX DETECTOR REFRACTIVE INDEX DETECTOR
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REFRACTIVE INDEX DETECTOR REFRACTIVE INDEX DETECTOR active index detector is the last choice detect least sensitive sensitive detector. It is sensitiv ges in ambient temperature and pressure and te. It can only be used with isocratic elutions nsuitable for gradient elutions. sts of the following components: t source which is usually tungsten lamp. ptical mask confines the beam to the region of s collimates the light beam which then passes both the sample and reference cells to a plan mirror reflects the beam back through the sam
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REFRACTIVE INDEX DETECTOR REFRACTIVE INDEX DETECTOR (CONTD) (CONTD) 5. The location of the beam rather than its intensity is Determined by the angular deflection of the beam caused By the refractive index difference between the contents Of the two cells. 6. As the beam changes the position of focus on the Photoelectric cell, the output changes and the resulting Difference signal is electronically modified to provide a Signal proportional to the concentration of solute in the Sample cell.
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REFRACTIVE INDEX DETECTOR (CONTD) (CONTD)
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HPLC THEORY HPLC THEORY Adsorption Chromatography (NP & RP) Interactions of the analyte with the adsorbent surface causing its slower movement compared to the eluent molecules
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DEAD VOLUME DEAD VOLUME V o , Dead volume is the volume of the liquid phase in the column Simple rule : Column dead volume = 65% of the volume of empty column 4 65 . 0 2 0 L D V
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CAPACITY FACTOR CAPACITY FACTOR
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Major parameters, V R is retention volume, depends on the column type, size, and on the instrument parameters V o is dead volume, volume of the liquid phase inside the column k’ is capacity factor, HPLC RETENTION HPLC RETENTION Retention time * flow rate (ml/min) = V R
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HPLC RETENTION HPLC RETENTION (Selectivity) (Selectivity) Selectivity ( ) is a separation power of chromatographic system regarding to selected components  = k 2 ’/k 1 is a parameter measuring relative distribution constants and its values can be obtained from a chromatogram.
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