in contrast, has been conducted in secret bfirms. It constitutes 'intellectual property' tto outsiders" (Bullock 2004a, 105). This raisesif all this is so secret, how does he know aBullock does address advertising's perspective,ment: "Advertisers deny they use sublimin107). But the subhead above this statementmakes Bullock's slant clear. He first addrrette campaign. The copy on the first ad looand reads, "If you got bopped doing the bumhard pack" (Bullock 2004a, 107). His little dpenises that he suggests have been embeddedtheme in these ads is overt, not covert. Embedsexual message across.Bullock (2004a) suggests that advertisers arplacing embeds in advertising: "Advertisers are intelligent, creative people faced with a itive pressures of the marketplace force themand at the same time require them to deny thethe media into this great conspiracy: "... marthe mainstream media from exposing the usMost newspapers, magazines, and televisionrevenues for survival. They are naturally relbecause advertisers provide their income"Even when Bullock (2004a) quotes advertisinthey do not use subliminal advertising, he ctesting Too Much" (130). He does the same wThis content downloaded from 126.96.36.199 on Thu, 20 Dec 2018 10:07:59 UTCAll use subject to
400 THE JOURNAL OF CONSUMER AFFAIRSDisinformation" (131) when reviewing the his claims. Bullock is very dismissive of tscientific studies have purported to 'provtechniques don't affect consumer behavior"the Moore (1982) study because the embed Other studies he suggests are "misleading even though these were refereed papers inexample, he suggests that the control ads that the author of the study just did notbecause the 'control' ads probably containehad not detected" [emphasis added] (132). Ia gift that has been given only to Key and Baccepts what Key sees at face value, even thBullock (2004a) analyzes other ads on tabads portray pedophilic fantasies, incest, awomen (even though their eyes are open)has homosexual implications. This is Brefers to free and uninhibited lifestyles. 'Fouto the two mouths and two anuses involved in homosexual sex. 'Full sizedbed' requires no explanation, and 'hangs out' refers to exposed genitalia"(147). It is hard to believe that Dodge would purposefully use homosexualimages to sell a vehicle that they have positioned as a "man's truck." Butthe most offensive analysis is of a news photograph (165) taken of oneof the towers at the World Trade Center on September 11. Bullock seesan attacking monster in the billowing smoke.Bullock takes a Freudian turn by suggesting that the real reason no oneadmits to using subliminal techniques is that we do not want to accept thetruth about ourselves. Again, he goes through some classic psychologicalexperiments, including the one where a cohort lies to see if the actual participants would change an obviously right answer to the wrong one. He againtalks about the billions of dollars spent studying subliminal perception inpsychology since the 1950s (172). With that kind of money he may be confusing subliminal studies with motivation studies, which have been done.