-Cultural ferment Stabilization of European Politics --Isolation of France: War of Spanish Succession and the Peace of Utrecht -Death of Louis XIV and his mixed legacy -England becomes Great Britain -Russia: Peter the Great (1689-1725)
English Constitutionalism Key Ideas -Constitutionalism developed in response to the crisis of the mid-17 th century -The importance of the question of legitimacy -The Divine right, etc. Queen Elizabeth Era -Religious conflict -39 articles of religion (1563) -Challenges from Spain over Netherlands -Spanish Armada (1588) -Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots (1587) Peace of Westphalia -Economic shifts -Economic stagnation during and after the war -Less specie, fewer goods, bad harvest, famine. -Demographic downturn -1/4 of all inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire died during the Thirty Years War -Straightened living conditions England and the Road to Constitutional Monarchy -English civil war (1642-1651) -Charles I against parliament over Scotland -short and long parliaments -cavaliers v roundheads -Oliver Cromwell and the new model army -levelers and the fight for equality -naseby (1645) -Execution of Charles I (1649) The Commonwealth ((1649-1653) -How should England and Scotland and Ireland be governed? -Not who should rule -Republican state form -Rump parliament -Dissolved by Cromwell in 1653
Protectorate (1653-1659) -Cromwell as Lord Protector -Rejected crown from Parliament -Written constitution and parliament -Unification of England and Scotland -Death of Cromwell (1658) -Restoration under Charles II (1660-1685) -Catholicism and Louis XIV Restoration -Smoldering resentments of Charles II and James II over religion and social strife. -Thousands Puritans lost jobs. -Mary went against father, allied with Dutch Republic -Estates general, elected officers, strong economy -Tolerance John Locke -Tabula Rasa (blank slate when born) -Two treaties of government -Against hereditary, absolute monarchy. Glorious Revolution 1688 -Installation of William and Mary -Dutch republic plays a role -Bill of Rights 1689
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