The gills of a fish take advantage of counter current

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The gills of a fish take advantage of counter-current exchange system. Explain how it works and why it is more efficient than a concurrent exchange system. Why does hemoglobin pick up oxygen at the lungs and unload it to metabolizing tissues? (Be able to interpret Bohr shift curves)
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Photosynthesis Review Questions Describe the two stages of photosynthesis in detail. Where do these stages take place? What are the inputs and outputs? Write the equation for photosynthesis and color code the atoms to indicate where the atoms of each reactant end up in the products. Distinguish between cyclic photophosphorlyation and noncyclic photophosphorlyation. Why are both needed to occur during photosynthesis? Chemiosmosis occurs during cell respiration and photosynthesis. Explain what it is and why it is an example of energy coupling. Compare the different types of photosynthesis (C 3 , C 4 , CAM) and explain what environments you will likely find such plants as the dominant species. Describe the process of transpiration. Discuss factors that will affect the rate of transpiration. Explain how translocation of sugar works within a plant. Cell Communication Review Questions Cell communication can occur through direct contact, the use local regulators, or the use of hormones. Discuss the differences between each type of communication and provide an example Discuss the difference between how protein & lipid based hormones act on target cells. Protein based chemical signals induce signal transduction pathways. Discuss how signal transduction pathways work. Be sure to include the role of a second messenger along with what a second messenger is. Cell Division Review Questions Why do cells divide? Discuss the stages of the cell cycle. How does cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cells? Discuss how the cell cycle is regulated. Include checkpoints, cyclins, CDKs, and cyclin-CDK complexes in your answer. Why is the cell cycle a highly regulated process? What are the roles of tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes?What happens when these genes are mutated? Compare mitosis vs. meiosis. Compare asexual vs. sexual reproduction. When are each of these strategies an advantage? Provide three examples of asexual reproduction. Discuss three ways sexual reproduction generates variation? Discuss how cytoplasmic determinants and induction control differentiation and morphogenesis. Classical Genetics Review Questions Discuss Mendel’s law of segregation and what it means. Discuss Mendel’s law of independent assortment and what it means. What is a test cross and what is its purpose? Be familiar with all the different types of genetics problems (monohybrid, dihybrid, incomplete dominance, codominance, codominance, sex-linkage) What is polygenic inheritance? How can you tell if a trait is controlled by multiple genes?
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