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Chapter 7

In hierarchical social order complain that women talk

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in hierarchical social order - complain that women talk to much about (desire for independence and control ) - sets himself as more knowledgeable , more reasonable , more in control - directness (“I think you’re wrong on that point”) - criticize women for seeming to apologize all the time (they see “I’m sorry” as weakness) - use talk to create connection - speak/hear lang. of connection & intimacy - convos are for negotiations for closeness (try to seek & give confirmation, support) - criticize men for not listening, want to promote closeness, gain support and connection – not just get advice - indirectness , don’t take definitive stands (“Have you looked at the marketing department’s research on that point?”) - women often use “I’m sorry” to express empathy *research said to be anecdotal & faulty (Goldsmith & Fulfs: men & women have more similarities than differences)
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P ART 3: I NTERACTING E FFECTIVELY Cross-Cultural Communication Cultural Barriers caused by… Semantics some words don’t translate btwn cultures words mean diff. things to diff. ppl e.g. word “sisu” from Finland has no translation in English Word Connotations words imply different things in diff. languages e.g. Japanese “Hai” may mean “Yes, I’m listening”, not “Yes, I agree” Tone differences in some cultures lang. is formal, some informal in some culture, tone changes depending on context (e.g. @ home, work…) Differences Among Perceptions ppl who speak different lang. actually view the world in different ways e.g. Inuit perceive snow differently b/c they have many words for it Cultural Context - cultures diff in the importance of context in influencing the meaning that individuals take from what is actually said or written vs. who the other person is H igh-context cultures = cultures that rely heavily on non ituational cues in comm’n - what is not said may be more significant than what is said - person’s official status, place in society, reputation → important in comm’n - imply more trust by both parties - oral agreements & age, seniority, rank in org → highly valued, influence credibility - managers tend to “make suggestions” - China, Vietnam, Saudi Arabia L ow-context cultures = cultures that rely heavily on w ords to convey meaning in communication - body lang. & formal titles is 2ndary to spoken/written words - values directness - contracts tend to be in writing, precisely worded & highly legalistic - managers are explicit & precise in conveying intended meaning - Europe, North America Overcoming Cross-Cultural Differences Assume differences until similarity is proven Emphasize description rather than interpretation/evaluation Delay judgment until you’ve had sufficient time to observe & interpret situation from differing perspectives of all cultures involved
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P ART 3: I NTERACTING E FFECTIVELY Practice empathy Try to see the other person as he really is; put yourself in recipient’s shoes Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis …that needs further testing, rather than as a certainty Carefully assess feedback provided by recipient to see if it confirms ur hypothesis Can check w/ other foreign colleagues to make sure
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in hierarchical social order complain that women talk to...

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