Experimental Manipulations of Emotions Combined with Physiological Outcome

Experimental manipulations of emotions combined with

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Experimental Manipulations of Emotions Combined with Physiological Outcome Measures In experimental studies positive and negative moods are induced in some participants and contrasted with other mood conditions in terms of health- relevant physiological measures. For instance, Robles, Brooks, and Pressman (2009) conducted an experiment in which stress versus no stress was induced in two groups, and skin recovery time after tape-stripping was measured. Trait positive emotions predicted quicker skin barrier recovery in the stress- induced group, showing the buffering effect of positive feelings on the effects of stress on skin barrier recovery. Fredrickson, Mancuso, Branigan, and Tugade (2000) carried out an experiment in which participants who were exposed to a positive mood induction showed quicker cardiovascular recov- ery after a stressful task than subjects who were exposed to neutral or nega- tive mood inductions. In a controlled experiment (Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2005) married couples were given blister wounds and assigned to a marital disagreement condition and to a social support interaction during two consecutive stays in a hospital setting. Following the marital conflict condition, participants had slower wound healing and lower cytokine production than they showed in the social support condition. In addition, couples who were generally higher in hostility showed slower wound healing than low hostile couples, as well as more tumor necrosis and a poorer immune response. Several reviews and meta-analyses indicate that emotional states induced experimentally are associated with health-relevant physiological outcomes. Lyubomirsky et al. (2005) found an effect size of .38 between experimentally induced positive affect and physical outcomes such as immune function and cardiovascular reactivity. Pressman and Cohen (2005) reviewed both experi- mental and naturalistic ambulatory evidence showing that positive emotions are related in the preponderance of studies to immune, endocrine, and car- diovascular parameters. Howell et al. (2007) reviewed 139 experimental studies testing the impact of well-being on health-relevant physiological out- comes. Inductions of well-being and ill-being led to positive biological outcomes and negative biological outcomes, respectively. The impact of 14 DIENER AND CHAN © 2011 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2011 The International Association of Applied Psychology.
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well-being was much stronger for immune response and pain tolerance, and nonsignificant for cardiovascular reactivity, although positive emotions pro- duced a significant drop in cortisol. The strongest effect size they reviewed was between transient positive emotions and sIgA antibody production. Not all research has found physiological reactions in response to mood inductions (e.g. Kiecolt-Glaser et al., 2008), and therefore we need to explore in more depth what types of physiological responses occur in response to what levels and types of moods and emotions. In sum, a large number of
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