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Specification by Performance or Function:The heart of performance specification is the understanding of the required functions; We think of a steak, instead of something to eat;Performance or function specification in combination with a request for proposal (RFP) is employed to a considerable extent, partly because it throws the responsibility for a satisfactory product or service back to the seller. Performance specification is results and use oriented,leaving the supplier with the decisions on how to provide the most suitable product or service.By engineering drawing: design or dimension sheet, descriptive textBy miscellaneous methods(description by market grade and description by sample.)Market grades:Its value depends on the accuracy with which grading is done and the ability to ascertain the grade of the material by inspection.
Sample: all purchasers use this method from time to time but ordinarily (there are some exceptions) for a minor percentage of their purchases and then more or less because no other method is possible.By a combination of two or more methodsSources of Specification Data(1)Individual standards set up by the buying organization; (2) standards established by certain private agencies, either other users, suppliers, or technical societies; and (3) governmental standards.Individual Standards:require extensive consultation. Arduous and expensive.A common procedure is to formulate its own specifications on the basis of the foundationlaid down by the governmental or technical societies.Standard Specifications: developed as a result of a great deal of experience and studyby both governmental and nongovernmental agencies, and substantial effort has been expended in promoting them.Widely known, commonly recognized and readily available to every buyerWhen Description by Brand is DesirableEither the manufacturing process is secret or because the item is covered by a patentSpecifications cannot be laid down with sufficient accuracyThe quantity bought is so smallEnd customers or users have preferences in favor of certain branded itemsAdvantages of Buying with SpecificationsEvidence exists that thought and careful study have been given to the need and the waysin which it may be satisfiedA standard is established for measuring and checking materials as supplied, preventing delay and waste that would occur with improper materialsAn opportunity exists to purchase identical requirements from a number of different sources of supplyThe potential exists for equitable competitionThe seller will be responsible for performance when the buyer specifies performanceLimitations in Using SpecificationsThere are requirements for which it is practically impossible to draw adequate specificationsThe use of specifications adds to the immediate cost
The specification may not be better than a standard productThe cost is increased by testing to ensure that the specifications have been met