Vaginal Prolapse (4% of vaginal births) Maternal Mortality In 2016 the maternal mortality rate was 23.8 (per 100,000 live births) o From a complication of pregnancy o During pregnancy or up to a year after o In Texas 150 women died as a result of pregnancy or childbearing (per 400,000 live births; a greater than 35.0 rate) Compare to 44.5 mortality rate for heart disease Newborns Between 6-9 lbs Double in weight by 4 months Kangaroo Care (skin-to-skin contact between mothers/fathers and infant) Benefits: reduced infant mortality (70% to 30% in Bogota, Columbia) Stabilizes baby heart rate, breathing, and temperature More sleep and less crying Improves bonding and confidence of caregivers Infant Mortality Infant mortality rate o Death in the first year of life o UN estimates it is 49.4/1000 for the world o US rate for 2016 was 5.80-6.10 o 5.9 infant deaths per 1000 live births in Texas (different ethnicities experience different rates; 3.7-10.8) o In Texas, 64% of infant deaths are in the first 27 days of life o Leading causes (account for 57% of deaths) Birth defects Preterm delivery Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Complications of pregnancy
Injuries Feeding No solid foods before 4 months of age (6 months if possible) Breastfeeding Formula Breastfeeding Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); American Academy of Pediatrics; Surgeon General o Recommend exclusive breastfeeding for six months o Continue feeding for year 4-18-17(added 5/1 Parenthood Caveat to breast feeding- "Is breast truly best? Estimating the effects of breastfeeding on long term child health…" Two different siblings one breastfeeding one not, found no real differences Claim that all the benefits are exaggerated Be careful with Messaging Women who reported receiving support for breastfeeding that they characterized as negative were at a higher risk for developing postpartum depression Recommendation to not supplement, but experimental evidence suggests this is bad advice Basically pushing new mothers to breastfeed can cause harm and make breastfeeding harder Epigenetics: studies changes in genes and gene expression due to environmental factors Rat moms Grooming led to activation in the glucocorticoid receptor gene What about humans? Romanian Orphanage studies Nurturing increases brain size Attachment style vs attachment parenting Post Partum Depression Depression- sadness, lack of interest, changing in eating, sleep and energy, feelings of worthlessness Port Partum depression- feeling disconnected from baby, worried about something happening to the baby, worried you will hurt your baby, feeling guilty Can occur in pregnancy through first year
3-6 months post partum 41.% of mothers and 25.% of new fathers report symptoms of depression Post Partum Psychosis Extremely rare .1% of births Sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, irritability, hyperactivity, paranoia Rarely will result in harming self and or baby Why?
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- Spring '08