The filipino propagandists of the late 19th centur

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Church is the State”. The Filipino propagandists of the late 19th century flared up this understanding and weaponized it to portray to their audience in Madrid the dismal state of the Philippines due to the hegemonic connivance of the two institutions, and in certain cases, used the Church’s overarching control over state affairs to usher in anticlerical sentiments. However, specific cases of political clash between the two debunk this historical proposition. One of this is the infamous case of conflict in 1719 between Governor-General Fernando Manuel de Bustamante and Manila Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta, over issues of government’s fiscal authority and the Church’s claim of immunity of sanctuary. This event led to the Bustamante’s assassination of a mob who attacked the governor’s palace. But the tension between the institutions has long been seen in the colony several decades before the Bustamante assassination. The so-called Felipe Pardo controversy of 1680-1689 is one good example of hoe we can view and understand Church and State politics during the formative century of Spanish colonial rule in the islands.Using actual reports and correspondences related to the Pardo case, this paper will explore the controversy and will answer the following questions: (1) How did the colonial government, through its judicial institutions, manifest its yardstick power over the management of the colony? (2) As a vital institution of political and social control, how did it challenge the supervisory and ministerial hand of the State, when it comes to fiscal and bureaucratic matters? (3) How did the people of the era interpret the case? Did it send a chilling effect to the sectors involved, especially after the “repercussions’ of State challenging Church superiority were seen in Archbishop Pardo’s retaliation?>This paper examines the lives and circumstance of some Chinese fugitives (chinos fugados) who, between 1832 and 1897, evaded certain restrictive colonial policies related to registration, taxation, and migration. Using 417 criminal cases culled from the Chinosbundles at the National Archives of the Phillipines, it explores the dynamic interaction between these outlaws and the state, set against the background of the evolving bureaucratic apparatus of the period, and the increasing number and physical mobility of the Chinese within the islands. On the one hand, it probes into the state’s view on flight and its punitive actions against fugitives, the factors within the state apparatus that enabled escapes to occur, and the actors and processes involved in capturing runaways. On the other hand, it also deals with the fugitives themselves: their profile and motivations, and, the processes, geo-spatial factors, and socio-economic networks within and beyond the Chinese community that the The Archbishop vs the Oidores: Church and State Politics as Reflected in the Felipe Pardo Case, 1680-1689Kerby C. Alvarez, PhDDepartment of History, UP DilimanFlight and Freedom: Chinese Fugitives, the State, and the Chinese Community in the Nineteenth Century PhilippinesJely A. Galang, PhDDepartment of History, UP Diliman

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