Genes are expressed as proteins epigenetic factors

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Genes are expressed as proteins Epigenetic factors change expression(uv radiation, cigarette smoke, etc), these influence how tightly dna is wound around histone proteins in order to turn them on or off
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In Depth: New Frontiers - Nutrigenomics Agouti evidence (2003) Female agouti mice fed particular diet before conception have “normal” offspring Compound in diet (lots of methyl donors) “turn off” “turn off” expression of agouti gene Other examples Alcohol intake and cardiovascular disease Variable weight loss on exercise Obese fathers and sperm changes increase cancer risk
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In Depth: New Frontiers - Nutrigenomics Future applications Personalized nutrition plan Consumption of particular nutrients or foods may decrease cancer risk Specialty foods Challenges Human genome contains 25,000 genes Measurement of genetic variation and expression Cofounding factors Genetic counseling Privacy concerns
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In Depth: New Frontiers Human microbiome____________________ - the set of genes belonging to microorganisms that inhabit the human body Our health is affected by interaction of microorganism genes and our human cells and genes 40 trillion microorganisms GI flora: helpful bacteria in our GI tract Supply nutrients for worn GI components Produce essential vitamins(K) Protect against infection Degrade carcinogens Protect against obesity and type 2 diabetes Anti-inflammatory
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In Depth: New Frontiers Functional foods – foods having substances that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition Non-essential Probiotics Contain microorganisms that improve the intestinal microbial balance(yogurt for example) Number of bacteria in product Regular consumption Storage Prebiotics - nondigestible ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of; inulin Helpful bacteria
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In Depth: New Frontiers - Phytochemicals Phytochemicals – plant chemicals that may reduce risk for disease and age-related decline 10,000+ have been identified Fruits, vegetables, coffee, tea, wine, beer, herbs, spices Benefits Anti inflammatory Protect against cancer Enhance immune system Cardiovascular health Too much can be bad!!
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Phytochemicals
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In Depth: New Frontiers - Phytochemicals Carotenoids Beta-carotene-red, orange, dark green Lycopene-tomatoes Phytosterol - plant sterols; vegetable oils & seeds Stillbenes Resveratrol-grapes Phytoestrogens Genestein-sou
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The End!
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