Harlow attachment forms as a consequence of a need

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Harlow – attachment forms as a consequence of a need for bodily contact Measuring attachment “Strange Situation” on Blackboard Styles of Attachment Secure attachment Able to play when mom is in the room Cries when mom leaves Stops crying when mom comes back Anxious-resistant Cling when mom is present Cries when mom leaves Still crying when mom returns Avoidant Indifferent when mom is in the room When mom leaves baby doesn’t cry Mom comes back and baby ignores her Disorganized/disoriented Confused throughout mom leaving and returning What Influences Attachment? Parental responsiveness How responsive parents are to their kids needs
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Child’s temperament Harder for fussy babies to attach because parents get tired of responding all the time Basic trust Sense that the world is reliable and predictable Parenting Styles Authoritarian Expect unquestioned obedience “Because I said so” Authoritative Set high, but realistic standards Encourage communication Permissive Make few rules and just accept child’s behavior Lots of warmth, caring Uninvolved Wish to not be bothered by children’s lives No warmth or rules; however, provide basic needs Adolescence Transitional period from childhood to adulthood Puberty – marks the beginning of the physical changes of adolescence Tends to begin earlier in girls than boys Primary sex characteristics – reproduction related
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Secondary sex characteristics – not directly sex linked Menarche and Spermarche  Brain Development Pruning – disappearance of neural connections Frontal lobe continues to develop Developing Morality Kohlberg posed moral dilemmas Kohlberg’s Moral Reasoning Pre-conventional Focused on punishment & rewards Conventional Focused on rules and approval of others Post-conventional Focused on abstract principles Forming an Identity Identity –sense of self  Intimacy – ability to form a close, loving relationship Parents and Peers Teens become more independent of parents during adolescence Peer approval and relationships become more important Emerging Adulthood “In-between” stage from 18-25 Adulthood
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Physical Performance peaks by mid-20s Fertility Sensory abilities decline Aging and Intelligence Crystallized intelligence Accumulated knowledge Increases with age Fluid knowledge Ability to reason speedily Decreases with age Death and Dying Stages: Denial, anger, bargaining, depression, acceptance “Wit” starring Emma Thompson Motivation A need or desire that energizes and directs behavior Contributors to Motivation Needs States of deficiency that compels our drives Drives Perceived state of tension that occur when our bodies are deficient of something (a  need)
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Incentives
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