Small cities below 300000 population with modern

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-Smallcities(below300,000population)withmodernlightrailsystems:Bern,Bielefeld.ThisreportisexpectedtobeparticularlyusefultotheNorthAmericancitieswhichpresentlyoperatesurfaceandseparatedrailsystems.Mostofthesecitieswillbefacedwithmajormodernizationofrailfleets,fixed facilitiesandoperationsinthecomingyears.Thesecitiesare:Boston,MassachusettsCleveland,OhioElPaso,TexasFortWorth,TexasNewark,NewJerseyNewOrleans,LouisianaPhiladelphia,PennsylvaniaPittsburgh,PennsylvaniaSanFrancisco,CaliforniaToronto.Ontario-CanadaThereport shouldalsoprovideinformationforthecitieswhichpresentlyhaveonlysurfacetransitbutconsiderintro-ductionofmoreadvanced,higherqualitytransitsystemsinthefuture.
TABLEOFCONTENTSPageSUMMARYOFCONCLUSIONSANDRECOMMENDATIONSivACKNOWLEDGMENTSviiiCreditsforIllustrationsxFOREWORDXiLISTOFTABLESxvLISTOFILLUSTRATIONSxvI.INTRODUCTION1A.PurposeandScopeoftheReport2B.PresentNeedforModernTransit2C.TheExistingandNewTechnologies7II.MODERNTRANSIT:REQUIREMENTSANDSOLUTIONS9A.RequirementsforModernTransit91.AreaCoverage92.CompetitiveLevelofService93.AcceptableCost9B.PresentSolutions9C.The"Gap"inIntermediateServices141.TheExistingChoiceofModes14a.BusPotentialsandLimitations15b.RailRapidTransitPotentialsand17Limitations2.The"MissingMode"andLightRail17PotentialIII.LIGHTRAILSYSTEMDESCRIPTION19A.PhysicalComponents191.TheVehicles19a.DimensionsandCapacity25b.WeightandPropulsion29c.MaximumSpeedandAcceleration32d.PassengerComfortandSideEffects33e.VehicleMaintenance34f.TheLatestTrends342.Rights-of-WayandAlignment36a.Separate LanesinStreets37b.CentralMedian38c.LateralPrivateRight-of-Way40d.AlignmentThroughParks42xiii
xive.LightRailinPedestrianAreas42f.ControlatIntersections42g.Underpasses43h.OverpassesandViaducts45i.Tunnels453.TheStations494.ControlsandCommunications54B.OperatingCharacteristics561.Network-AreaCoverage562.Speed593.CapacityandFrequencyofService614.Reliability635.Comfort646.Safety657.EnvironmentalEffects658.ImageandPassengerAttraction66C.TheCosts661.InvestmentCosts662.OperatingCosts;LightRailvs.Bus693.FinancingMethods70IV.PRESENTLIGHTRAILAPPLICATIONS73A.CitySizesandDensities74B.Lines,NetworksandTypeofService77C.RelationshipwithOtherModes80D.AutoOwnership,PassengerCharacteristics84andTrendsE.PlanningofNewLightRailSystems86V.COMPARISONWITHOTHERMODES90A.LightRailandBus90B.LightRailandProposedSystems93C.LightRailandRapidTransit94VI.EVALUATIONOFTHELIGHT RAIL SYSTEMANDITS98POTENTIALFORNORTHAMERICANCITIESA.

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