59. Examine the decline of the Ottoman empire. What factors explain this process? What attempts at reform did the Ottomans undertake? How successful were they?60. Examine the turbulent years of the nineteenth century in Russia. How successful were Russian efforts at modernization and industrialization? What were the limits of success?61. Examine the decline of China in the nineteenth century. How did China fall from world leader to dominated state so rapidly?62. Examine the Taiping rebellion. What internal Chinese problems led to the rise of this movement? What role did Hong Xiuquan play? What were the rebellion’s consequences?63. Examine the Meiji restoration. What were its guiding principles? Why did it copy western Europe and the United States? Why was Japan successful in modernization while Russia, China, and the Ottomans struggled? Was there a downside to the Meiji restoration?64. Compare and contrast the changing situations in the Ottoman, Russian, Qing, and Tokugawa states during the nineteenth century. What common problems did they face? Were some moresuccessful in adapting than others? If so, what accounts for the success?65. Examine the changing economic world of the Ottoman, Russian, Qing, and Tokugawa states. Why did these societies have so much trouble competing with the western Europeans?66. Look at Map 31.2, The Russian empire, 1801-1914. What were the chief areas of Russian expansion? What areas would lead to trouble for Russia in the future with the western Europeans and Japanese? What role would the Trans-Siberian Railroad play?67. Examine Map 31.3, East Asia in the nineteenth century. Trace the decline of China and the expansion of foreign domination. What role would Japan play in this changing Asian world?68. Look at the picture of nineteenth-century Russian merchants on page 715. How does it represent Russia’s uneasy marriage of western European and traditional Russian influences? How successful were Russia’s efforts at modernization and industrialization?69. Study the picture of Empress Dowager Cixi’s marble vessel on page 722. What is the symbolism of this story? Were other countries making short-sighted decisions?70. Read the Proclamation of the Young Turks (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Proclamation of the Young Turks). In what ways were these ideals similar to the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen?71. Study the Lin Zexu letter to Queen Victoria (see Textbook: Sources from the Past: Letter of Lin Zexu to Queen Victoria). How had China changed their treatment of foreigners involved in the opium trade? If the Europeans had received Lin Zexu’s letter, do you think they would have taken it very seriously? What if the Europeans had received it a century earlier?