In the red record she used lynching statistics from

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InThe Red Record, she used lynching statistics from theChicago Tribunetodemonstrate how the right to a fair trial and equality before the law did notextend to African American men and women.Jane Addams (1860-1935)Research on everyday lives of immigrants from eastern and southernEuropeFocused on their adaptation to city life --crime, family problems,unemploymentPublished her findings inHull House Maps and Papers(1895)13
Addam’s work is significant because:She argued forms of social deviance were in response to adaptation to citylife, not an element of immigrant cultureShe combined empirical research with advocacy work. She not only studiedthe urban poor, she developed social programs to help alleviate socialproblems. Among other activities, Hull House provided: a library, artgallery, kindergarten, nursery, music school, boys club.Her work was known among sociologists at the time but marginalizedThe all-male Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago agreedwith Addam’s findings regarding immigrant adaptation butSaw the poor areas of Chicago as a sociological "laboratory" forscientific studySociology was to remain a purely scientific discipline.The best institutional home for the creation of scientific knowledgewas the university.The gender split became realized in early 1900s in two disciplines:sociology ---- scientific ----- male dominatedsocial work ---- applied --- female dominatedW.E.B. Du Bois (1868-1963)First black scholar to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard was a prominent Blackscholar and co-founder of the NAACP.His work addressed racial divisiveness in U.S. society.Structural RacismHis book,The Philadelphia Negro(1899)Showed how poverty among African Americans in the United States wasprimarily the result of racial discrimination.Applying rigorous methods, Du Bois’ studies and subsequent writing treatedsociology as a science, employing empirical research and quantitative aswell as qualitative analysis..14
Based on over 2,500 in-person interviews systematically conducted withBlack households in the seventh ward of Philadelphia from August 1896through December 1897.Du Bois uncovered a spectrum of factors contributing to community illssuch as poverty and crime. None of these included the alleged inferiority ofAfrican-Americans. African Americans were forced to live in two worlds, awhite one and a black one.illustrated the realities of racism and how it impacted the lives andopportunities of this community, providing much-needed evidence in thefight to disprove the supposed cultural and intellectual inferiority of Blackpeople.'Double-Consciousness'The Souls of Black Folk(1903)Du Bois asserted racism prevents Black people from having true self-consciousness, and instead forces them to havedouble-consciousness,wherein they have an understanding of themselves1. within their families and community2. but also must view themselves through the eyes of White others who seethem as different and inferior.

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