Limestone salt potassium chloride magnesium oxide

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Limestone, salt, potassium chloride, magnesium oxide Ammonium sulfate, copper sulfate, sodium bicarbonate Sodium sesquicarbonate, sodium carbonate, and calcium phosphate A variety of trace minerals may be added, depending on local needs o Vitamin A fortification is about 30,000 IU/lb, with vitamin D at average levels of about 9,000 IU/lb, and vitamin E at levels of about 12 IU/lb o Nonnutritive additives include antibiotics, ionophores, hormones (acetate, antioxidants, ethanol), and flavoring Emulsifiers, clays or gums, aid in keeping ingredients in suspension if dry ingredients are added. Protein Solubility and Degradability by Microorganisms- as related to ruminants
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o Proteins can be evaluated and rated for use by monogastric species by digestibility of the protein and ability to supply specific AA For optimal ruminant utilization, needs can be more complex because of microbial fermentation in the forestomach o Proteins provided by rumen microorganisms provide an adequate supply for animals producing at moderate levels. For young, rapidly growing animals and high-producing dairy cows, this does not appear to be the case o Improved performance has been shown by infusing intact proteins or different AA into the abomasum or duodenum o For animals with higher than normal need for limiting AA, the optimal situation would be to supply adequate N for the rumen microbes With excess dietary protein absorbed in the gut o There is interest among nutritionists, feeders, and milling companies in using protein utilization data to improve protein efficiency by ruminant animals and to allow more efficient use of added NPN Chapter 7- Roughages Plant materials of one kind or another provide dietary CHO for herbi
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