The monks are distinguished from the bodhisattvas who

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a break from the traditional Indian representation. The monks are distinguished from the bodhisattvas, who are typically represented by their jewelry, ushinisha, and elegant drapery, by their bald head, natural hand position, and flowing robes. The scale of the Buddha is exaggerated, as shown by his long earlobes, rectangular face, and stretched neck, which suggests that the Buddha’s representation is elongated. The Buddha is wearing a stylized robe with continuous thin lines that cover his sliding shoulders, which is another stylistic difference with its Indian cousins. [201] Preaching Buddha. Cave 249, Fresco, Mogao Caves, Dunhuang/Gansu. Northern Wei dynasty, Fifth century CE This is a fresco representation of the Preaching Buddha found in Dunhuang’s Cave 249 of the Northern Wei dynasty. The defining quality of the painting is the handling of light and dark colors. The broad dark lines outline the figures and forms in the piece, which characterizes this painting as a linear style piece. Centrally-oriented, the Buddha is clearly defined with his mudra signs, the lotus throne, downcast eyes, and elongated ears; however, the headdress is a new character of the Buddha, which differentiates the Chinese and Indian representation of the Buddha. The Buddha is accompanied with four bodhisattvas, who are wearing elegant headdresses and bracelets. The representation of the Buddha and the attending bodhisattvas appear to be stretched vertically as the waist down appear to be longer, clearly displaying the elongated style. Pictorial Art of Southern China [368, 370] Attributed to Gu Kaizhi (ca. 344-406), Admonitions of the Instructress to the Ladies of the Palace . Ink and color on silk, hand scroll. Six Dynasties period. This is the Admonitions of the Instructress to the Ladies of the Palace (attributed to Gu Kaizhi) of the Six Dynasties period, which is ink and color on silk. Functionally, this piece is represented on a handscroll, a medium used to enable the subject to be accessible to the higher ends of society who could read and understand the lessons being portrayed. The four figures of this piece are of the upper class (court) as shown by their flowing dresses, sloping shoulders, sharp noses and chins, and elegant headdresses. The women are slender and have rectangular-shaped faces, indicating that this is an elongated style being used. Although the figures are linearly represented by subtle lines to indicate the swirling and fluttering movement of the drapery, there are instances of the “ink wash” technique that bolds the color on the dresses against the abstract background to make their clothes more elegant and courtly. The iconography of the piece is evidently Confucian, as the subject is to “admonish” courtly women of proper behavior. Moreover, the central figure is the instructress, since she is writing down the courtly women duties on paper for the moral instruction of the other women in the court. Aesthetically represented by her more frontal placement relative to the others, the central figure is an exemplary image to other courtly women, all of whom are oriented towards her in a standing or bowing position. This piece is
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